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December 31, 2015 deeplink respond

Some Cluff NW Canal Preliminary Field Notes has just been
posted here with its sourcecode here.

This seems to be a twice refurbed historical rework of a 
prehistoric original.

Present field notes include...

Cluffnw Canal
Smith Canal
Veech Canal
Lefthand Canyon West 
Minor Webster Ditch
Freeman Canal
Sand Canal
Tugood Canal

Some of these need further improvement. Eight down, fifty seven
to go. Org.

More Hanging Canals:
New Developments:

December 26, 2015 deeplink respond

Some Smith Canal Preliminary Field Notes has just been
posted here with its sourcecode here.

This abondoned historical canal in the Ash Creek area
appears to have indirect evidence of a prehistoric origin, 
as do other near to Cluff Ranch.

Present field notes are...

Smith Canal
Veech Canal
Lefthand Canyon West 
Minor Webster Ditch
Freeman Canal
Sand Canal
Tugood Canal

Some of these need further improvement. Seven down, fifty eight
to go. Org.

More Hanging Canals:
New Developments:

New Developments:

December 18, 2015 deeplink respond

Once again expanded and updated our Gila Valley 
 We are now up to 438 main entries,
most of which now include GPS location links.

Also included our latest hanging canal directory
along with many dozens of third party links of
local outdoor interest. Plus several new Arizona
higtorical book downloads. 

Please email me with anything I missed or needs 
further updating.

December 6, 2015 deeplink respond

The "local blend" version ( the one with the broken thermometer
on the label ) of the El Fumarole Salsa de Mucho Caliente has been
banned in all civilized nations of the world and even parts of Texas.

Naturally, when El Fumarole goes out to hunt, the Habanaros and
Scotch Bonnets have to stay on the porch.

Some possible substitutes appear here.

December 1, 2015 deeplink respond

Discovered yet another long forgotten CCC field camp in
the Canador Peak area.

There are literally thousands of nearby local CCC projects.
The overwhelming majority of which were totally and utterly
worthless boondoggles.

But largely made up for by a few unique and surviving 
structures and the overall societal program goals.

Much more of the same on our Gila Dayhikes page.

November 13, 2015 deeplink respond

The USGS now have made all of their older versions of historic
available for free download. Just dial the year!

Some interesting observations from the Thatcher 1960 
fifteen minute quad:

Their last mention of the "white house" 
seems to still be viewable as a roofless 
Anglo ruin on Acme Mapper.

The long abandoned Bigler Canal is also
traceable  on Acme Mapper. While still 
unproven, an underlying prehistoric precedent 
would be highly conspicuous  by its absence, 
with proven old canals nearby. Including 
several other artesian sourced ones.

Somewhere I seem to remember a map reference in
Coottonwood wash of the "Lamb Hotel Ruins" .

While I tried to find it adjacent to Pima International
Airport many years ago, it seems to remain a mystery.
There is also a findable Lamb Tank further west.

Speaking of which, Pima International is likely the
only place you will find a C119G Flying Boxcar that
is being converted into a Bed and Breakfast.

Rumors of nightly DC3 Service to Columbia remaining 
available at Thatcher International Airport appear to be 
largely unverified. Sharp eyed pilots flying into Thatcher
International may note very minor debris on the runway,
such as refrigerators or evaporative coolers. 

Similar topics here.

November 14, 2015 deeplink respond

Free eBook downloads of two of the most significant early
Arizona History records are newly available.

Find Hodge's Arizona as it is here.

And Hinton's Handbook to Arizona here.

Similar resources here.

November 13, 2015 deeplink respond

The USGS now have made all of their older versions of historic
available for free download. Just dial the year!

Some interesting observations from the Thatcher 1960 
fifteen minute quad:

Their last mention of the "white house" 
seems to still be viewable as a roofless 
Anglo ruin on Acme Mapper.

The long abandoned Bigler Canal is also
traceable  on Acme Mapper. While still 
unproven, an underlying prehistoric precedent 
would be highly conspicuous  by its absence, 
with proven old canals nearby. Including 
several other artesian sourced ones.

Somewhere I seem to remember a map reference in
Coottonwood wash of the "Lamb Hotel Ruins" .

While I tried to find it adjacent to Pima International
Airport many years ago, it seems to remain a mystery.
There is also a findable Lamb Tank further west.

Speaking of which, Pima International is likely the
only place you will find a C119G Flying Boxcar that
is being converted into a Bed and Breakfast.

Rumors of nightly DC3 Service to Columbia remaining 
available at Thatcher International Airport appear to be 
largely unverified. Sharp eyed pilots flying into Thatcher
International may note very minor debris on the runway,
such as refrigerators or evaporative coolers. 

Similar topics here.

November 12, 2015 deeplink respond

Links to one hundred university libraries that have free and
largely unlimited public access can be found here.

November 1, 2015 deeplink respond

We are sometimes criticised for using the term "hanging canal".

A historic Utah precedence for largely identical hanging structure
references can be found here. And once you have seen our prehistoric 
ones, there is not the slightest doubt that they are hung.

Sometimes only a few feet above the base terrain.. Other times many 
 And often leading to spectacular "water flows uphill" illusions.

We define a hanging canal as a portion that goes midway high along 
the steep sided edge of a mesa.
 Done to first make its slope largely
independent of terrain, and secondly to allow most construction to 
take place across, raather than along the route.

Both of which energy efficiency considerations are essential with 
stone age tools and a lack of beasts of burden.
 Depending on the 
terrain, a typical canal usually ends up a mix of hanging and flatland

October 31, 2015 deeplink respond

A somewhat less than stunning third party U-Tube video on our 
hanging canals can be found here.

October 23, 2015 deeplink respond

Amazingly, rectocranial inversion can be both acute and
chronic at the same time.

October 15, 2015 deeplink respond

Many thanks to all of you who attended my Gila Watershed
 talk yesterday. As typical, the "what good is archaeology?" 
question came up.

My two co speakers came up with the usual "whoever ignores history
is destined to repeat it" and "all of science is based on standing on 
the shoulders of giants."

I guess my answer is differnt. It does not matter in the least what good
archaeology is. For all of science and much of engineering, "IT" is 
what we do.

Because "IT" is there and resolving "IT" is obsesivaly our mission. 
End of story.

October 13, 2015 deeplink respond

The KML language in Google Earth would seem to have the   
ability to completely blow awway GIS mapping. Among its
many possibilities is the ability to "fly" your custom map.

When I looked at this a while back, I could not find a way
to do splines in KML. Splines would be particularly useful
on our hanging canals to eliminate the need for hundreds 
or thousands of points per single wandering canal path.

Apparently kml splines are now routine per these details
More on this when I get a chance to look further.

It also s still not obvious to me how to do slanty lettering 
in KML.

Additional KML support here.

October 11, 2015 deeplink respond

It is usually very easy to tell the difference between a 
genuine prehistoric canal and its later rework. But
absolutely "proving" that a historic rework in fact has
a prehistoric precedence is another matter entirely.

Energy efficiency was absolutely crucial in any prehistoric
 owing to the lack of metal tools, significant
instruments, and beasts of burden. Each teaspoon of
dirt and each rock had to be painstakingly moved by 

Canals were strictly only the size and ( especially ) the
depth needed to get the job done. When and where
appropriate, "hanging" portions were used to make the
slope independent of the terrain. And to allow primary
construction across, rather than along, the canal route.

Modern or historic rework had no similar restrictions, with
mule scrapers, gradealls, and even bulldozers readily 
available. Thus, there was a total and wanton disregard
for energy efficiency during conruction

Yet a modern rebuild occasionally would include a low 
energy and low profile short segment. The most credible 
explanation for this is that the entire modern canal was in 
fact a rebuild of a prehistoric original.

Such low profile segments appear in the Webster Ditch 
and the Cluff NW canals. While this does not in and of itself 
constitute "proof" of a prehistoric origin, it very stongly 
suggests so.

Sadly, no srong rebuild evidence exists for the Smith 
. But indirect evidence includes it being such an 
obvious location for a prehistoric origin that its absence 
would be highly conspicuous. In addition, there is a large
habitatin site and numerous potsherds in the immediate 
area and the Smith tanks would appear to have been highly 
reasonable areas for prehistoric fields.

In addition, several canals seem to have prehistoric 
extensions well beyond their historic rebuilt uses. This 
typically happens then the historic rebuild terminates 
in a cattle tank. Hawk Hollow is one example.

No convincing evidence has been found to date of any 
historic bajada canal having been an origina

My premise remains that virtully all of the historic use 
bajada cana;s were "steal the plans" or "borrow the 
blueprints' from underlying prehistoric originals. If for 
no other rason that it is much easier to "dig out an old 
ditch" than it is to fully design and develop a successfully 
working canal from scratch in a difficult terrain.

Much more here.

October 9, 2015 deeplink respond

There will be a professional tour of our local hanging canals
involving some name brand archaeologists and hydrologists
next Tuesday and Wednesday October 13th and 14th.

A very limited number of additional guests can be accommodated
on these free tours, particularly if you can provide a SUV and a driver.

Please contact or call 928-428-4073 if you want
to participate .

October 7, 2015 deeplink respond

I will be lecturing on our Prehistoric Hanging Canals at
the Gila Watershed Alliance meeting on Wednesday October 
14th at 7 to 9 PM in the GSA Services building at 931 Thatcher
Blvd (aka US 70) in Safford.

Anyone with an interest in hydrology, environment, or 
archaeology is welcome to attend this free talk.

October 6, 2015 deeplink respond

Here is yet another variation on our latest hanging canal papers.

October 4, 2015 deeplink respond

Excerpts fom our latest hanging canal paper can be newly
found in this Southwest Archaeology blog.

October 3, 2015 deeplink respond

Preliminary Field Notes for the Veech Canal are newly   
available here.
 And its sourcecode here.

This long sought after canal seems to define the 
easternmost limits of our present hanging canal study
. It has not yet been field verified but the Acme
 and the Google Earth evidence is quite 

Previous field notes are...

Lefthand Canyon West 
Minor Webster Ditch
Freeman Canal
Sand Canal
Tugood Canal

Six down, fifty nine to go. Org.

Much more on our prehistoric hanging canals here.

September 30, 2015 deeplink respond

I'll be doing a free lecture on our Prehistoric Hanging Canals
this Saturday October 3rd at 6 PM in the Discovery Park 
Jupiter Room.

Discovery Park is near the corner of Discovery Park Blvd and
20th Avenue in Safford Arizona. To reach the Jupiter room, 
just follow the main pathway all the way South.

There tentatively will be a free tour of the Sand Canal on Sunday
morning. It will involve about half a mile of very easy hiking
with desert compatible footware and reasonable clearance 
dirt road friendly vehicles. Lunch at Juanitas might also be 
a possibility. 

Here is what some of the pr sort of was supposed to look like...


"Prehistoric Bajada Hanging Canals subject of Saturday's free 
Discovery Park lecture" 

The ongoing Discovery Park lecture series welcomes back local
researcher and author Don Lancaster this Saturday October 3rd 
at 6 PM in the Jupiter room on the Discovery Park campus. 

Don will be speaking on the latest discoveries involving a 
spectacular series of previously unknown and newly world class 
"hanging" canals that literally exploited every drop of Northeastern 
Mount Graham stream water in the 1250 CE to 1450 CE time frame. 

Astonishingly, there are over 65 known canals whose currently 
explored length exceeds 70 miles. Their engineering and hydrology 
is clearly and unquestionably beyond brilliant. Many of the canals
remain well preserved and a few actually flow to this day. 

The talk can be previewed through links at 

Tours can be arranged. Additional researchers are more than 
welcome. The only skills needed as a researcher are an 
enthusiasm for hiking, a genuine avocational interest in 
prehistory, and knowing how to take notes and use a camera 
and a GPS receiver. Drone, video, and ATV operators are 
particularly needed. 

Discovery Park is located near the junction of Discovery Park 
Boulevard and 20th Avenue in Safford, Arizona. To reach the 
Jupiter Room, just follow the main walkway south. 

For additional info, please contact Paul Anger or Jackie Madsen 
at (928) 428-6260. Don's website is

September 24, 2015 deeplink respond

Preliminary Field Notes for the Minor Webster Ditch are newly   
available here.
 And its sourcecode here.

Previous field notes are...

Freeman Canal
Sand Canal
Tugood Canal

Four down, sixty one to go. Org.

Much more on our prehistoric hanging canals here.

September 20, 2015 deeplink respond

Made some revisions to canaleng1.pdf and to its 
canaleng1.psl sourcecode.

We expect this to be published shortly. More on our
hanging canals here.

September 19, 2015 deeplink respond

No survey instruments are known to survive from the design 
and construction of our prehistoric bajada hanging canals.

One possible explanation being that they never existed in the 
first place. Or were much simpler or less obvious than expected.

Given the exceptional water management expertise, the canals
may in fact have been larrgely self modifying and self regulating.

Here are some more or less credible possibilities...

WATER LEVELS - Pilot extensions of a canal
under constructions could have been built and
filled with static water, noting the start water 
depth compared against the barely overflowing
end of the current project extension. Such 
water levels remain a popular product to this day. 

A section of the Sand Canal seems "too small"
to be useful between N 32.83186 W 109.92448 and
N 32.83515 W 109.92272.  And inco
nsistent in size 
with its earlier portions. Possibly being an incomplete
pilot might be one possible explanation .

TWO STICKS - One of two sticks of identical length
could be placed in the bottom of the present end of
a canal being extended. A second could be placed
a hundred feet or so upstream. Sighting between the 
two would give a credible slope exxtension.

THE POSTHOLE THEORY - A posthole of half its
ultimate depth could be dug a hundred feet or so 
beyond a canal being extended. Three identical
sticks could then be used to verify slope alignment.
The posthole could then be deepened as needed
to become a survey construction marker. 

A much larger and completely unresolved question is how the routes
( up to six or more miles! ) were picked in the first place.
 Finding a 
credible constant slope route between point A and point B in a Basin
and Range
 province bajada is clearly no trivial matter.

Of all the known canals, only the Mud Springs canal has points where
it can more or less be viewed in its entirity. Which suggests that this
may have been an original or at least a very early construct.

Part of the solution may lie in critical locations or pinch points that 
any canal had to go through. These locations would then subdivide
the total canal length into somewhat more manageable segments.

The most stunning example here is the Mud Springs watershed 
crossing that could only possibly take place at N 32.79166
W 109.85388

Other examples include "knife edge" mesas where the route
clearly must be placed. Exaamples include N 32.75828 W 109.82097
on the main Frye Mesa Canal, N 32.76080 W 109.78125 on the main 
Deadman Canal and possibly N 32.75513 W 109.78034 on the still
unexplored East Deadman canal. Or possibly N 32.83567 W 109.79793 at
the beginning of the Culebra Cut. 

Your thoughts welcome.

September 10, 2015 deeplink respond

Preliminary Field Notes for the Tugood Canal are newly   
available here.
 And its sourcecode here.

Note that you can click thru to larger and higher resolution
images. And that there are JavaScript page-to-page nav
buttons. Thanks to /F, all figures are now auto inserted
using the Gonzo utilities routed to Distiller. Only the JS
nav needs done after distillation.

This is intended to be the third of many ( possibly 65 sets )
of updated and revised field notes.

Much more on our prehistoric hanging canals here.

September 4, 2015 deeplink respond

Preliminary Field Notes for the Freeman Canal are newly   
available here.
 And its sourcecode here.

Note that you can click thru to larger and higher resolution
images. And that there are JavaScript page-to-page nav
buttons. Thanks to /F, all figures are now auto inserted
using the Gonzo utilities routed to Distiller. Only the JS
nav needs done after distillation.

This is intended to be the second of many ( possibly 65 sets )
of updated and revised field notes.

Much more on our prehistoric hanging canals here.

September 2, 2015 deeplink respond

Field Notes for the Sand Canal are newly available here.
And its sourcecode here.

Note that you can click thru to larger and higher resolution
images. And that there are JavaScript page-to-page nav
buttons. Thanks to -F, all figures are now auto inserted
using the Gonzo utilities routed to Distiller. Only the JS
nav needs done after distillation.

This is intended to be the first of many ( possibly 65 sets )
of updated and revised field notes.

Much more on our prehistoric hanging canals here.

August 30, 2015 deeplink respond

Some or our recent prehistoric bajada hanging canal developments
would be... 

Strong new evidence that many if not all historic bajada canals do in 
fact have prehistoric origins. Especially the Minor Webster Ditch 
and the Cluff NW Canal complex. Based on remnant low energy 

The shorter new Sand Canal that features a sampler of most hanging 
canal features combined with easy foot and vehicle access. 

An enigmatic new Golf Course Canal with a significant hanging portion 
and a possible destination for the spectacular counterflowing HS Canal. 

A new possible nursery site apparently Freeman Canal canal fed. 

Discovery of a near pristine Tugood Canal, possibly many miles in length. 

Discovery of the potential route of the long sought Veech Canal.

August 28, 2015 deeplink respond

Golly Gee Mister Science.

Here's the top few "gee whiz" features of our prehistoric
bajada hanging canals

1. The sheer scope and magnitude of a world class total 
exploitation of every recoverable drop of northeastern
Mt. Graham water through 65 exceptionally engineered
canals of 70+ total miles.

2. The high Marijilda hanging canal portion that is hung 
200 feet above its adjacent drainage.

3. Many other hanging canal portions of variable offset,
clearly done to make slope independent of terrain and
clearly done to optomize construction across, rather than
along the canal route. But only present where needed.

4. The spectacular counterflowing HS canal returning Frye
Mesa water to Frye Creek. Perhaps an eighth mile long,
seven feet wide, and dropping a highly controlled 200 feet.

5. The Culebra Cut below Allen Dam 20 feet wide by seven feet
deep and extending for 300 feet. No signs whatsoever of
historic rework.

6. The Marijilda aqueduct, perhaps 300 feet long by 4 feet high.

7. The optimal watershed crossing of the Mud Springs Canal
from the Ash Creek Drainage to the Mud Springs Drainage.

8. The still unproven watershed crossing between Frye Creek
and Spring Canyon, required as the most reasonable explanation
for many canals to be suitably sourced. A third possible 
watershed crossing might also be in Nuttall canyon.

9. The nearly pristine and still largely unexplored Tugood Canal, 
potentially several miles long.

10. Examples of counterflow structures that work against the 
prevailling terrain. Especially for wash crossings and the
spectacular HS Canal.

11. Rather strong proof that many if not all historic bajada canals
were in fact adapted from prehistoric originals. Based on
remnant low energy profiles.

August 26, 2015 deeplink respond

Here's a partial list of our available Bajada Hanging Canal
photos. Those with an "x" in the filedname are reduced
resolution ( typically 500 pixels wide ) suitable for use in
PDF documents...















August 21, 2015 deeplink respond

I've moved an archive of historic emails involved in our Bajada
Hanging Canal
 reseaarch to our website. It can be made 
available to you on request.

But there are two gotchas. Since it is an uncompressed folder
of .eml files whose size may change, it can be delivered by FTP 
only.And you have convince us of a reasonable need to know.

August 20, 2015 deeplink respond

A reprint of the Glyphs Prehistoric Hanging Canal paper can
be found here.

August 18, 2015 deeplink respond

Here is yet another of our Prehistoric Hanging Canal cloud

Starting the short and enigmatic canal segment found at
N 32.80011 W 109.7507, trace its origin and destination,
possibly as far back as the HS Canal at N 32.75874 W 109.81404

Yeah, that would be quite a stretch. But the canal, if real,
had to come from somewhere. And the HS Canal is
super spectacular, so it had to have a still unknown

Other cloud projects linked here.

August 17, 2015 deeplink respond

Managed to find yet another prehistoric hanging canal.
As usual, it raises many more issues than it resolves.

The tentative name is the Freeman Canal.

What we have is a hundred foot square very rocky area
in an otherwise flat and sandy desert at N 32.80011 W 109.75075. 
There is not the slightest hint of anything on Acme Mapper .

The rocks have obviously been rearranged into alignments of 
some sort. Prehistorousity would not seem to be in reasonable doubt, 
and there seems to be no obvious CCC handiwork.

There is a small apparent field perhaps 20 feet square. There are a 
few small check dams without aprons.

The site seems to be directly fed by a vague and erratic mid sized canal 
like structure. The canal can be sort of traced for a few hundred feet. 
And then, so far, vanishes.

This would require a major linking system of several MILES to reach 
candidate sources such as the HS Canal. So far, there is only one tiny 
hint of anything in between.  The between area has been visited many 

The terrain is eminently suitable for a canal route. Both slope and 
topographically. The location is reasonable  considering the known 
canals. This would be #65. A previous list can be found here.

I am totally baffled by what I seem to be looking at. None of it makes much 
sense to me so far. The developed area seems much too small for that much 
of a canal. IF it is in fact a canal.

I definitely need a second or third opinion. Some preliminary photos now
appear herehereherehereherehereherehere, and here.

More on other hanging canals here. Your participation welcome.
Field mice, Daddy Warbucks, and drone pilots definitely needed. 

August 7, 2015 deeplink respond

There seem to be quite a few presently disused historic
pipelines in the area, some of which would appear to be
prehistoric bajada hanging canal related. Here is a
summary of some of the candidates...

ASH CREEK - Still functional pipeline parallels
Mud Springs Canal but starts higher, routes
directly donstream, and apparently still feeds 
Cluff Reservior #3. 
N 32.77450 W 109.85976 to N 32.79622 W 109.85764

SAND CANAL - Two mysterious short segments
of terra cotta pipe have been placed near the known
takein of an otherise clearly prehistoric canal.
Who did this and why remains enigmatic. 
N 32.83094 W 109.92607 and N 32.83122 W 109.92562

DEADMAN MESA - Original westernmost portion
of prehistoric Deadman Canal has been replaced by
historic pipeline once feeding domestic water. Still
flows but today only serves cattle tanks. 
N 32.73878 W 109.81177 to N 32.74493 W 109.80673

BELOW FRYE DAM - Extensive prehistoric canals
instead stayed high on Frye Mesa. Bottom canyon
concrete pipe route appears modern and dam 
related. Combined with Deadman pipeline to
route to a chlorinator and domestic water supply. 
N 32.75602 W 109.81698 to N 32.76917 W 109.79285

MYSTERY REACH - Fragments of a concrete pipe
line appear to possibly overlay a largely unstudied
and rather vague prehistoric original. Definitely
needs further study. Prehistoric ag structures and
rock alignments are also in the area. 
N 32.79087 W 109.76136 to  N 32.79297 W 109.75890 ?

CLUFF NW CANAL - Extensively developed historic
canal shows prehistoric standards portions and 
includes several white PVC pipes as feeders and
as siphons. 
N 32.82414 W 109.84816 and N 32.82702 W 109.84646

GOAT CANAL DROPOFF - While the topo map shows
three pipelines here, only one remains Acme Mapper
visible. This one might even have had some hydro
 32.68504 W 109.72947 to N 32.68428 W 109.72924

Field mice and drone pilots needed.

July 24, 2015 deeplink respond

A question that might reasonably be asked is "How many 
of our bajada prehistoric canals are now in use for marijuana

To the best of my knowledge and belief, I feel the answer
is zero. The vast majority of the canals presently do not
flow or have no usable takein. The few that do currently
flow or are capable of are all in obvious or highly visible
locations. And managed by ditch bosses who are pillars
of their community.

Much more here and its curious origin here. Plus many
hundreds of millions of daily progress reports here.

July 20, 2015 deeplink respond

Here's a preliminary list of all the hanging canals and
their related constructs...

1. VCN1 
Veech Canal
From middle Veech Canyon to possible P Ranch Fields
N 32.64151 W 109.74348 to N 32.64386 W 109.74218
Not yet explored, should be significant.

2. GTC1
Goat Tank Canal
From Lower Jacobson Canyon along southern edge of 
    Ledford Mesa
N 32.68467 W 109.76160 to N 32.68914 W 109.72106
Apparently still in modern use, difficult access.

3. LDC1
Ledford Tank Canal
From Lower Jacobson Canyon along middle of 
    Ledford Mesa.
N 32.68454 W 109.76209 to N 32.69198 W 109.72801
Apparently still in modern use, difficult access.

4. JAC1
Lower Jacobson Hint ( largely discredited )
N 32.67671 W 109.77610 to N 32.67736 W 109.77472 
Aerial evidence became a fence line in hostile terrain.

5. UMC1
Upper Marijilda Delivery Canals
N 32.70648 W 109.77932 to N 32.70930 W 109.77709
Group of small delivery canals near main Marijilda takein.

6. MAR1
Main Marijilda Canal aka Lebanon Ditch from Marijilda 
      Dam to Lebanon Reservoir
N 32.70628 W 109.77702 to N 32.73322 W 109.76149
Major prehistoric development, still flowing Modern Use

7. SMB1
Marijilda Southern Feeder Bran
N 32.71096 W 109.77108 to N 32.71327 W 109.76696
Short delivery and diversion canals south of Main Marijilda

8. MAQ1
Marijilda Aqueduct
Delivers between Main Marijilda and High Marijilda
32.72356 W 109.76257 to N 32.72411 W 109.76235
Only known major system aqueduct crosses a saddle.

9. HMC1
High Marijilda Hanging Canal
N 32.72410 W 109.76239 to N 32.74113 W 109.74677
Spectacular portion hangs mesa edge 200 feet in the air.

10. SXP1 
Sixpack Canal
N 32.72290 W 109.76052 to N 32.74449 W 109.73391
Branch of Marijilda south of access road, still needs work

11. HNC1
Henry's Canal
N 32.73712 W 109.74229 to N 32.74456 W 109.72996
Southern branch of main Marijilda, portions unexplored.

12. RPC1
Roper Canal
N 32.75567 W 109.70885 to N 32.75567 W 109.70885
Modern feeder to Roper Lake, presumed mostly prehistoric.

13. RIC1
Rincon Canal
N 32.73410 W 109.76325 to N 32.76222 W 109.74402
Marijilda branch possibly becomes Twin West canal.

14. TQC1
Tranquility Canal
N 32.75754 W 109.73294 to N 32.77477 W 109.72751
Artesian sourced and historic use from presumed original.

15. DPC1
Discovery Park Canal ( vague - still requires verification, )
N 32.79267 W 109.72830 to N 32.79450 W 109.72781
Possible feeder to potential Discovery Park fields.

16. TEC1
Twin East Canal
N 32.76068 W 109.73500 to N 32.76472 W 109.73426
Routes UNDER the Lebanon Cemetary, one of TWO 
       feeders to the TB ponding area.

17. TWC1
Twin West Canal
32.76226 W 109.74374 to N 32.76739 W 109.73803
Hanging canal is SECOND feeder to tb ponding area

18. TBP1
TB Ponding Area
N 32.76739 W 109.73803 to N 32.76465 W 109.73400
Receoves and redistributes TEC1 and TWC1 water. 
      Highly distinctive aerial profile.

19. MFC1
Mystery Feeder
N 32.76738 W 109.74366 to N 32.76681 W 109.74181
Short Canal segment might tie Deadman or Deadman 
     South to Twin West. Needs more work

20. DMS1
Deadman South
N 32.75525 W 109.78008 to N 32.75650 W 109.77712
Unexplored potential canal has strong Acme Mapper 
     presence. Includes mystery alignments.

21. DMC1
Main Deadman Canal
N 32.73735 W 109.81291 to N 32.76277 W 109.77392
Still flows in original channel serving cattle tanks. 
     Portions are buried pipeline.

22. WS1
Water Spreader Rock Alignments
Such as 32.78883 W 109.73843 and N 32.79273 
W 109.75897 and elsewhere. The more obvious 
of these are CCC, but many, many prehistoric 
examples also exist

24. MRG1
Mulch Ring Arrays
N 32.78491 W 109.74642 plus many others.
Typically 2 feet in diameter by one rock high in 
     groups of 20. Rather common.

25 CKD1
Check Dams with Aprons
N 32.77872 W 109.76472 or N 32.78840 W 109.87113
      plus many others
Rock diversions across secondary washes are quite common..

26. ALS1
Albertos Signature
N 32.79690 W 109.75485
Of the thousands of conflicting CCC structures locally, this one 
    is the only known one autographed in sone..

27. LVC1
Longview canal
N 32.78956 W 109.75971
Obvious short wall on otherwise unsupported short canal segment 
    with local destination.
 Sourcing unknown and unproven.

28. FWD1
Frye Watershed Diversion
N 32.74427 W 109.83918 to N 32.74558 W 109.84033
Unproven potentially spectacular watershed crossing 
    seems demanded by HS Canal and others.

29. MFC1
Main Frye Mesa Delivery Canal
N 32.74573 W 109.84033 to N 32.75995 W 109.81148 
Partially unproven but demanded by Frye Ponding Area, 
       HS Canal, Golf Course, and Robinson Canal.

30. FPA1
Lower Frye Mesa Ponding area.
N 32.75995 W 109.81148
Gathers in Frye Mesa braided channels to support HS Canal, 
      Golf Course?, and Roginson Canal.

31. HSC1
HS Canal
N 32.75987 W 109.81163 to N 32.75771 W 109.81511
Spectacular hanging and counterflowing structure RETURNS 
      water to Frye Creek, possibly sources Golf Course.

32. LFC1 ( largely discredited )
Lower Frye potential route
N 32.76634 W 109.79377 to N 32.77185 W 109.78715
Possible route includes wagon road with horseshoes, 
      could feed Blue Ponds.

33. BPC1
Blue Ponds Canal
N 32.78118 W 109.77771 to N 32.78064 W 109.77607
Short disused historic pond routing canal may or may
        not have unproven prehistoric origins.

34. RGC1
Riggs Mesa Area Braided Channels
Area of N 32.77763 W 109.78729 to N 32.77831 W 109.78694
Enigmatic channels may be routing between HS Canal and Golf 
      Course Canal.

35. GCC1
Golf Course Cxanal 
N 32.79811 W 109.78286 to N 32.79895 W 109.77587 
Major prehistoric canal sericed Daley Estates area, includes 
      hanging portions and mystery structure..

36. Twin Artesian Ponds
N 32.79956 W 109.78347 and N 32.80264 W 109.78091
No obvious links to Golf Course Canal, but unlikely to be
       prehistorically ignored.

37. RBC1
Robinson Ranch Canal
N 32.75997 W 109.81147 to N 32.79930 W 109.79027
Major hanging canal with strong down = up illusion sources
    from Lower Frye Mesa ponding area

38. ALC1
Allen Canal
N 32.78237 W 109.83540 to N 32.83253 W 109.80507
Major prehistoric canal possibly includes Frye Watershed 
         crossing. Destination remains unknown.

39. ALD1
Allen Dam Failure 
N 32.83324 W 109.79383 
Back in its water sking (!) days, might have been fed by the Allen Canal.

40. CUC1
Culebra Cut
N 32.83567 W 109.79796 to N 32.83560 W 109.79841
Spectacular major large cut in Allen Canal below historic dam.

41. ACF1
Ash Creek Feeder to Mud Springs
N 32.79016 W 109.85478 to N 32.79140 W 109.85388
Source for Mud Springs canal via proven spectacular watershed 
       crossing but not yet fully explored.

42. MSC1
Mud Springs Canal
N 32.79153 W 109.85375 to N 32.84796 W 109.81105
Major canal system branches to Jernigan, includes several 
      hanging portions. Destination remains unknown.

43. THP1
Troll House strange structure
N 32.82538 W 109.82281
Enigmatic pithouse like mud springs canal related 
      structure lacks charcoal

44. MJB1
Mud Jernigan Branching Point
N 32.82765 W 109.81953
Apparent location of the beginning of the Jernigan Canal.

45. MST1
Mud Springs Tank
N 32.82766 W 109.81896
Apparently historic construct would seem to demand Mud 
      Springs Canal for its water.

46. JEC1
Jernigan Canal
N 32.82765 W 109.81953 to N 32.84131 W 109.81649
One of few canals with obvious destination. Conspicuous 
      hanging portion, habitation sites.

47. LMT
Lower Mud Trace ( largely discredited )
N 32.80803 W 109.84448 to N 32.81882 W 109.84093
Aerial images appear to be field verified as a historic two track.

48. STC1
Smith Tank Canal
N 32.81870 W 109.84689 to N 32.82055 W 109.84458
Likely has unproved prehistoric original.

49. CSW1
Cluff Southwest Canal
N 32.81586 W 109.84971 

Branches from the Smith Canal takein on Ash Creek. Still unexplored.

50. CNW1
Cluff Northewst Canal Complex
N 32.82494 W 109.84652 to N 32.83635 W 109.84302
Strongly redeveloped canal system includes convincingly 
authentic prehistoric reaches.

51. MWD1
Merrill Webster Ditch
N 32.79771 W 109.87296 to N 32.81310 W 109.86638 
Historically redeveloped canal shows reasonable evidence 
of unmodified prehistoric origins

52. TGC1
Tugood Canal
N 32.80923 W 109.87115 to N 32.82008 W 109.86671
Most impressively pristine of the known hanging canals. 
Superb restoration candidate.

53. MLC1
Main Lefthand Canal Complex
N 32.80850 W 109.91812 to N 32.81680 W 109.91872
Shorter canal segments primarily used for end use delivery

54. LWC1
Lefthand West Canal
N 32.82077 W 109.91835 to N 32.82564 W 109.91851 
Prehistoric original adapted for historic field reuse.

55. SLC1
South Lefthand Canal ( Needs verification )
32.83101 W 109.91453 to N 32.83366 W 109.91555
Yet to be verified aerial image

56. LMC1
Lamb Tank Canal
N 32.81196 W 109.92310 to N 32.81445 W 109.92266
Likely lefthand source. Additional study required.

57. MR1 ( largely discredited )
Mystery Reach
N 32.81793 W 109.90207 to N 32.82478 W 109.90003
Fairly convincing aerial evidence field verifies more as
      a disused vehicle two track.

58. SWC1
Sand Wash Canal
N 32.83099 W 109.92604 to N 32.83508 W 109.92274
Ideal short tour candidate has nearly everything including 
easy access. May be prototype as final channel miniscule.

 59. NWD1
Nuttall Watershed Diversion
N 32.77471 W 109.95411 to N 32.77774 W 109.95532
Postulated third watershed crossing would supplement 
Sand Canal water sourcing. Unverified.

60. BSC1
N 32.85049 W 109.94399 to N 32.87226 W 109.92596
Apparent scam historic canal from a source unlikely to
     have been prehistorically ignored.

61. GRD2
The grids
Southern examples include N 32.78651 W 109.74353
         and N 32.79408 W 109.75260
Rectangular agave farming arrays. Many thousands north 
        of Gila river, a few hundreds south.

62. BDC1
Bandolier Canal
N 32.94446 W 109.91120 to N 32.94677 W 109.91317
Appears to be deep vee riverine canal unreleated and 
       unlinked to present study area.

63. UFO1
UFO Fish Fillets
N 32.81203 W 109.97330 to N 32.82299 W 109.96420
Likely a highly atypical CCC project that may or may 
      not have prehsoric origins.

These were numbered arbitrarily more or less from southeast to 
northwest. We will likely use as an outline for a set of expanded 
field notes.

Much more info here.

July 17, 2015 deeplink respond

Either I am looking in the wrong places, or web information on
fingerprint longevity seems to be either ambiguous or sorely

Could a fingerprint under a rock survive in some remnant form 
eighty years? This might let you separate 80 year old CCC
rock projects from our 800 year old prehistoric canals.

Then again, the CCC folks might have consistently used

No mention of this on CSI Gila Bend. 

July 16, 2015 deeplink respond

Managed to upload
to go with our excerpts13 and excerpts14.

Taken together, these should include a historic time line of our
hanging canal developments, without needing to plow through 
all the rest of the whatnu blogs

More on the canals here.

July 14, 2015 deeplink respond

A question came up as to which of our prehistoric baja hanging
 might be restorable.

The quick answer is very few, owing to multiple owners, some
extensive historic revisions, more recent land use, and a lack of 
available demo water.

But two reasonable candidates would include a third mile of the 
Sand Canal at N 32.83096 W 109.92607 to N 32.83096 W 109.92607
and possibly as much as two miles (!) of the Tugood Canal found
N 32.80846 W 109.87176 to N 32.82246 W 109.86579

Both reches appear pretty much pristine.

July 10, 2015 deeplink respond

Amazingly, five of our prehistoric bajada hanging canals
either still flow to this day or at least seem capable of 
doing so...

MARIJILDA CANAL - An important feeder
to the Lebanon Ponds from N 32.70600 
W 109.77755 to N 32.73322 W 109.76158

ROPER CANAL - Modern feeder to Roper
Lake believed to mostly follow a prehistoric
canal route from N 32.74617 W 109.74177
to N 32.75567 W 109.70885
 Portions realigned
along US 191.

DEADMAN CANAL - Portions here apparently
still flow in the unmodified original prehistoric
channel from N 32.73791 W 109.81238 to
N 32.75502 W 109.78938 Part of this route
is now a disused but still flowing buried pipeline.

LEDFORD CANAL - Believed prehistoric original
sometimes upplies modern cattle tanks from
N 32.68455 W 109.75917 to 
 32.68989 W 109.73711.
Not yet fully explored due to difficult access.

GOAT TANK CANAL - Believed prehistoric original
sometimes upplies modern cattle tanks from
N 32.68231 W 109.75879 to 
  32.68556 W 109.72935.
Not yet fully explored due to difficult access. 

July 3, 2015 deeplink respond

The first photos of the probable location of the long sought
after Veech Prehistoric Hanging Canal ( P Ranch area ) can 
likely be found herehere, and here.

While the very first photos of the newly known and verified 
TuGood prehistoric Canal ( Merril area ) can be found here,
here, and here

Much more here and here.

July 1, 2015 deeplink respond

One of the most stunning illusions in our prehistoric bajada
hanging canals
 is the consistent "water flows uphill"
illusion. Typically, a canal flows DOWN to the HIGHEST
point on a hill or mesa! And does so brilliantly while fully
preserving any and all physical laws.

Typically, seeing is not believing. "They" are playing 
with your mind. Obviously, the canal has to start somewhere
higher than the highest present elevation. Such opportunities,
of course, abound with a mountain at your back.

The engineering sophistication to pull this off staggers
the imagination. "They" apparently realized that the
canals should always be on the HIGHEST terrain to
MAXIMIZE the water potential energy, and thus to
allow the longest possible delivery distances. 

A summary here. Plus bunches more here.
Field mice welcome. As are Daddy Warbucks and
drone operators.

June30, 2015 deeplink respond

Win a few, loose a few.

Typically more than nine out of ten of our potential hanging
candidates end up "real" and world class upon more
detailed investigation. But I've decided to include the losers
in our directories as well for completeness and to discourage
replowing old ground.

After dozens of fruitless trips and chasing many rumors, it
appears the Veech Canal in the P Ranch area is likely quite
real. I still have not ground truthed it, but it clearly seems
to be at N 32.64294 W 109.74269  And credible witnesses 
seem to now abound,  both within and outside of Coronado 
National Forest.

There do seem to be some nearby water spreaders to the
east that may or may not be prehistoric and may or may 
not be CCC. The access route seems brushy and over half 
a mile from the nearest 4WD track. This might end up as
an interesting ATV project. As well as a drone candidate.

The spectacular but little visited Veech Canyon appears
to be a seasonal water source that was gathered and 
routed further north to yet undiscovered fields in the
P ranch area.

Meanwhile, what looked like a potential canal on
Acme Mapper in the lower Jacobson Canyon area
with credible location and slope apparently turned into
a plain old fence line in rather canal hostile territory.

A summary here. Plus bunches more here.
Field mice welcome. As are Daddy Warbucks and
drone operators.

June 27, 2015 deeplink respond

Our prehistoric bajada hanging canal study has apparently 
now gone to an unprecedented "beyond beyond beyond".

Read the summary here and the ongoing progress here
And follow the emerging story right here

One new but still unverified discovery can be found here
And another one here. Possibly bringing the apparent totals to
FOURTY THREE canals of total length more than ONE 
HUNDRED kilometers! Built by moving one rock at a 
time by hand in the 1250 to 1450 time span. Possibly 100 
man years or more in the construction!

Your assistance is desperately needed in this world class
scientific research as GPS field mice, as a drone and operator, 
as an ATV escort, with funding, or simply spreading the word 
on these clearly world clsss discoveries.

Lectuire opportunities on request.

June 20, 2015 deeplink respond

While the overwhelming majority of our prehistoric hanging
 lie on Arizona State Lands, many of them actually
originate with takeins on Coronado National Forest streams.

Typically, a canal might start with a short CNF original reach
only to continue primarily on state, or rarely, BLM or private

Here are some of the more crucial research problems on 
CNF lands that need immediate atention:

Start with
 for more details.

(1) Seek evidence of the takein and exact location route of 
     the Mud Springs Canal between N 32.78614 W 109.85518 
     and N 32.79148 W 109.85364. Portions may have been 
     obliterated by the 1983 Octave tropical storm. The route 
     further north is well defined and well researched for nearly 
     all of its six miles,-109.85389&z=15&t=T

(2) Determine feasibility of a watershed crossing to prehistoric 
      engineering standards between Frye Creek and Spring Canyon 
      from N 32.74346 W 109.83977 to N 32.74468 W 109.83844
      to N 32.74545 W 109.84044. Seek out proof that such a route 
      in fact existed. Other proven canal constructs would appear to 
     demand such a routing. Notably Robinson Ditch, HS Canal, and 
     Golf Course Canal. Other area watershed transits elsewhere 
     have been fully established.,-109.83949&z=18&t=H

(3) Seek out evidence of a prehistoric canal underlying the modern 
     Frye Mesa Tank water line from N 32.74575 W 109.84034 to 
     N 32.75228 W 109.83822 to N 32.75522 W 109.83547.
    Other existing canals downstream demand this routing.,-109.83870&z=16&t=H

(4) Determine if there is any evidence of a prehistoric watershed diversion 
     crossing underneath the Nuttall tank at N 32.77787 W 109.95533. 
     Sand Canal would seem to strongly require this as a water source.,-109.95534&z=20&t=H

Your assistance welcomed.

June 18 2015 deeplink respond

Approximately one third of all our local prehistoric bajada
hanging canals
 were apparently reworked as historic projects
in some manor or another. To date, no strong evidence has
been found of any historic bajada canal use that did not seem
to have a "steal the plans" or "dig out an old ditch" prehistoric 

Here is a summary of some of the rebuilds...

CLUFF NW - Major historic development
includes large rectangular cardinal oriented
fields, tailwater runs, Y-Weirs, siphons, and
large ditches. Short runs to prehistoric standards
appear to be a reused part of earlier constructs.

MARIJILDA DITCH - Was paved with puddled
concrete aggregate and runs to this day to supply
the Lebanon Ponds and Roper Lake.

FRYE TANK - Modern pipeline appears to exactly
follow a prehistoric supply canal once feeding 
Robinson Ditch and the HS canal.

TRANQUILITY - Portions paved with concrete
aggregrate to supply Cook Reservoir from a likely
artesian source. .

ROBINSON - Name usurped but little modernized
longer reach appears to have supplied cattle tanks.

MINOR WEBSTER - Mix of reaches to prehistoric
standards and modern deeper vee constructs with an
adjacent maint road.

LEDFORD & GOAT - Historic adaptions still supply
numerous cattle tanks from a Jacobson source..

DEADMAN - Adapted as a Thatcher water source
but has fallen into disuse. Water still flows in its original
prehistoric routings.

ALLEN - May have supplied Allen Reservoir in 
modern times. Has a clearly prehistoric origin and
major Culebra Cut excavations.

SMITH CANAL - Historically used to replentish
a pair of Smith Tanks. While prehistoric evidence
remains fairly weak, reuse clearly seems likely.

Amazingly, GoatLedfordMarijilda, and Deadman still
often flow to this day, largely in their original prehistoric

June 17 2015 deeplink respond

Once again expanded and updated our Gila Valley 
 We are now up to 426 main entries,
most of which now include GPS location links. 

Please email me with anything I missed or needs 
further updating.


June 2, 2015 deeplink respond

Canal #41 of our Prehistoric Hanging Bajada Canals has just
been located! It is tentatively called the Togood Canal and
would appear to bring the potential length totals of this largely
unknown and vastly understudied world class archaeological engineering 
wonder well beyond sixty miles (!) or ninety six kilometers.

This one is just west of the Cluff Ponds area and is the fifth
candidate canal in this immediate region. Its known portions are 
located here, with its potential reach here. Ranging from a projected
shared tekein with the Minor Webster Ditch in the Shingle 
Mill Canyon area to potential ag fields destination area somewhere in
a still unlocated Cluff Ponds area.

Finding the actual takein point may prove difficult to impossible, 
as it  may have been obliterated by the 1983 Octave tropical storm.

The canal is "medium" sized with a one meter width, a
ten cm depth and a total length projected to be in the three to 
four mile class. The visited portion of the terrain is exceptionally
benign, meaning that there are no presently observed hanging
portions, nor any apparent need for them. In general, the 
hanging portions are only used when the route becomes 
difficult and there is a need to make the slope independent
of the immediate terrain.

Further, the 4WD access, while long, is very mild and the
foot travel is largely trivial. Portions also have rather little in the
way of brush, making this an ideal candidate for drone debugging.

There seems to have been very little historical development interest
in this area, so Togood appears to be genuinely prehistoric with 
at least some portions exceptionally well preserved.

Significantly, this new find averages a mere 700 feet west of the Minor
Webster Ditch and clearly adds credibility to the premise that Minor
Webster was in fact "steal the plans" and did have a prehistoric
precident. The two "odd" eastern markers here show the Minor
Webster relation to this new find.

The area is on posted state land on the far side of posted ranch
property, so the disturbance factor presently appears surprisingly
minimal. As with most canals in the area, artifacts are largely
unpresent. There is minor interference from CCC boondoggles.

Unfortunately, a camera battery was dead, so proof still lies in the
"sources close to an associate of the barber of a usually reliable
spokesperson" genre.

Immediate tasks are obviously to replace the battery, to seek out
possible destination fields, to find any Minor Webster branching,
and to try and scam some drone funding. There are two homes for
sale nearby ( one of them stunningly beautiful ) that sure would make 
dandy field camps.

The find is profound enough to possibly alter the focus of the entire
hanging canal bajada study and possibly even demand that portions of 
southwestern archaeology be rewriten or, at the very least, reevaluated.

Your help with both funding and as field mice are welcome. This is
a seldom seen opportunity for just about anyone to participate in
leading edge world class scientific research. 

Possibly right in your own front yard. 

May 29, 2015 deeplink respond

Here's yet another hanging canal cloud project.

This Acme Mapper image suggests yet another possible
major hanging canal but has not yet been field verified.
Google Earth supports a credible slope.

Go to  N 32.81714 W 109.86764, explore north and south, and evaluate the
potential for this being real. Take relevant photos Try to establish a takein
point and the destination fields.

More on these mind blowingly spectacular bajada hanging canals here.

May 26, 2015 deeplink respond

I continue to be utterly amazed that new bajads prehistoric
 are continuing to be found. To date, we have something
like 41 candidates of which 33 are field verified and only three
rejected as old wagon roads or whatever. ( Points off for horse
shoes! ). The rest await independent opinion and verification.

Total length of the hanging bajada canals is rapidly approaching 
sixty miles! This is clearly beyond beyond.

The latest new candidate is here. It seems to have acceptable Acme
 imagry, length, and reasonable Google Earth slope. But 
still awaits ground proof.

Much more here. Your assistance welcome.

May 25, 2015 deeplink respond

For a decade now, cavers have been concerned over the white
nose syndrome
 that has been wiping out US bat populations.

The fungi prevents the bat from hibernating properly, and
they run out of energy before they run out of winter.

Apparently a new discovery of a bacterial treatment holds
tremendous promise for easing the problem.

News here, the paper here, and a discussion here.

In the middle of all this is Bat Conversion International.
Plus, of course, the National Speleological Society.

BTW, the word "decimation" really only means one
tenth of what you think it does.

May 20, 2015 deeplink respond

The prehistoric engineering behind our local bajada hanging
 continues to utterly astound me. Surely not all of this
could be coincidence...

makes its slope largely independent of terrain.

minimum cuts, fills, and sizing except where it is
absolutely otherwise called for.

WATERSHED CROSSINGS - Several instances of
major ridges are being crossed at absolutely optimal

HIGHEST TOPOGRAPHY - Numerous occurrances
of the canals apparently was purposely routed to the 
HIGHEST possible local topography in many instances.
Especially on Deadman Mesa, Mud Crossover, and
middle Minor Webster.

NO MISTAKES - Entire system seems both complete
and optimal. And literally appears to exploit every drop
of Mt. Graham water.

OPTIMAL SLOPE - Is amazingly consistent over long
distances. Also quite straight, but never quite cardinal or
precisely aligned.

While Hohokam influence appears significant, the
bajads systems ended up doing so much more in so 
little time,

SIMILAR EXAMPLES RARE - Possibly in Tularosa NM,
Hierve el Agua, and the island of Maderia. Relationships unlikely.

the highest Arizona mountain measured from its base. It
also has more north running streams than most others. 

feet of elevation is required to "hang" a canal for a slope
independent of terrain, examples as high as 200 feet above
the regional drainage terrain exist. -

NO OBVIOUS SURVEY TOOLS - Which suggests in situ
use of pilot structures and water level measurement techniques.

HISTORIC "STEAL THE PLANS" - Or "Borrow the Blueprints.
Virtually all bajada historic canals seem to be "Dig out an old
Ditch" adaptions or partial uses of prehistoric originals.

COUNTERFLOW EXAMPLES - When needed, canals flow 
"into" the typography rather than along it with it. This technique
is particularly handy for wash crossings, but also sees spectacular
use in the HS Canal return the Frye Creek.

TWO OR THREE WAY SWITCHING - Done between watersheds
at absolutely optimal locations.

HUGE CONSTRUCTS - Despite minimal construction energy
being the sought after norm, very large builds exist, notably the 
HS Canal, the Marijilda Aquaduct and the Culebra Cut.

May 18, 2015 deeplink respond

Previous explorations of the Minor Webster Ditch strongly
suggested historical construction or rework and seemed to
lack any strongly compelling evidence of a previous bajada 
hanging canal
 prehistoric origin.

A premise has been that virtually all historic bajada canals
had "steal the plans" or "borrow the blueprints" or "dig
out an old ditch" prehistoric precedents. Recent evidence
for the Cluff NW canal complex strongly supported shorter
largely unmodified segments of prehistoric size, slope, and
construction energy. 

Until yesterday, the Minor Webster Ditch seemed to lack 
potentially convincing evidence of a prehistoric origin.

Explored portions of the canal revealed large and deep cuts,
extreme construction energy inefficiency, the presence of a maint 
road, and even its very name clearly supported strong historic use.

But yesterday's explorations near N 32.81102 W 109.86749 
revealed a significant canal reach whose slope, size, patina, and 
construction energy appears totally indistinguishable from similar
prehistoric constructs without historic intervention. Such reaches
would appear extremely unlikely were they not in fact a 
genuine prehistoric precedent.

Typical photos appear herehere, and here. While remarkably
well preserved, there is some significant erosion damage near
N 32.81102 W 109.86749. The destination remains unexplored
and unknown. Complicating matters is that the canal appears
to be about to run out of State Land and headed to a newer high 
 home at N 32.81413 W 109.86466.

May 17, 2015 deeplink respond

Of the four known major bajada canal complexes in the Cluff Ponds
area, Mud Springs has no known obvious examples of historic reuse, 
and is thus almost unquestionably prehistoric.

The Minor Webster Ditch System was just discovered to have
significant reaches that appear indistinguishable from prehistoric
origins. Based on construction energy, slope, size, apparent 
purposes, and patina.

The Cluff NW complex also was recently discovered to have 
partial reaches that also appear indistinguishable to prehistoric 

Three out of four ain't half bad.

Which leaves the Smith Canal. On the basis of a weak "odd man out"
argument, this canal might also be believed to be of prehistoric
origin since there is no known clear or compelling evidence proving
otherwise. The size and scope of the constructs, while somewhat
large, seem certainly within prehistoric bounds. There is also
significant tradeware evidence and habitation sites in the area.

And the modern tanks could easily overlay prototype prehistoric fields.

While certainly not constituting proof, a claimed prehistoric origin for
the Smith Canal does not at present seem unconvincing. 

May 16, 2015 deeplink respond

While not in the earliest of our Prehistoric Bajada Hanging Canal
, the Cluff Ponds area is proving to be an incredibly rich
and diverse resource.

Which, in hindshight, should have been obvious because the area
is one of the most intensely riparian in the entire Bajada complex,
and thus would seem highly unlikely to be ignored by prehistoric
water developments that otherwise apparently totally exploited
every drop of available Mount Graham water.

Here's a summary of some of the present candidate study areas...

MUD SPRINGS - Ash creek takein of this nine mile extremely well
preserved prehistoric complex was presumed near N 32.78709 
W 109.85501 but may have been obliterated by the 1983 
Octave tropical storm. Also branches into the Jernigan Canal
with a few reaches and one set of destination fields presently
unlocated. The saddle crossing between two major drainages 
remains engineeringly spectacular. As does several hanging 
sections. Includes an enigmatic "troll house" structure.

SMITH TANK - Mile long obviously historical canal sourcing
from Ash Creek near N 32.81323 W 109.84905 would seem to have 
no obvious barriers to a prehistoric "steal the plans" precedent. 
Ruins and extensive but sparse tradeware support early occupations. 
Presently in disuse.

MINOR WEBSTER DITCH - Mostly very well preserved and obviously
historic canal is presumed to originate in Shingle Mill Canyon near N 32.79005 
W 109.88949, but  its takein point may have been obliterated by the 1983 
Octave tropical storm. Presence of a mainainence road and a somewhat larger 
size presently lacks convincing proof of prehistoric origins. However, it is
strongly felt that such proof may eventually be forthcoming. Numerous
check dams and tradeware are in the area. About two miles length with
an unknown destination likely related to three or more tanks.

CLUFF NORTHWEST COMPLEX - A group of two or more historic canals
remarkably close to paralleling each other of several miles total length.
Some portions are quite large and include distinctively unique Y-Weir structures, 
while other reaches appear to be largely unmodified prehistoric structures of 
minimal size and extreme energy efficiency. "Steal the plans" evidence for 
these reaches appears to approach fairly solid prehistoric proof as their most 
credible excplaination. Takeins believed from Ash Creek near N 32.82426 
W 109.84678. One possible explanation for the Y-Weirs is that historical canal 
expansion caused significant erosion needing control.

ALSO RANS - A still unexplored triple headgate near N 32.81295 W 109.84887
served obvious historic purposes but could well be prehistoric original based.
It seems primarily of local delivery. A two track trail of credible canal slope from 
N 32.80789 W 109.84453 to N 32.81877 W 109.84090 appears to be just an
old and disused road, but there do seem to be a few related rock alignments.
The destination and full extent of the Cluff NW complex is not yet known, but
conceivably could extend northward much of the distance to Pima. There are 
numerous CCC structures, particularly in the Minor Webster area, but these 
seem uniquely distinct and unrelated. Finally, there are a number of check
 that appear genuinely prehistoric. Some of these are aproned, and at least 
one has a large mid channel barrel cactus.

Your participation is welcome

May 14, 2015 deeplink respond

In 1983, tropical storm Octave dropped twelve inches of rain on
Mt. Graham, more than doubling the previously kept 65 years of 
flood records.

To date, I've been unable to find any ground evidence for either the
Mud Springs Canal sourcing from Ash Creek or the Minor Webster
 sourcing from Shingle Mill Canyon. A credible explanation is
that the Octave event could have obliterated any and all takein
evidence. Subsequent reaches of both canals remain remarkably
well preserved and easily traced.

Only the first mile of the above links are linked above..

In Ash Creek we have a sheer cliff in conglomerate, a geological
entity highly tenuous at best. In Shingle Mill Canyon, we have
huge piles of carefully sorted and dirt free foot diameter boulder

I'm still hoping some takein evidence survives and can be found.
Your participation is welcome, particularly if you have geological
expertise. Many more resources here.

May 10, 2015 deeplink respond

Here is yet another cloud project involving our hanging canals...

Locate the continuiance of the Minor Webster ditch in the
Cluff Ponds area at N 32.81193 W 109.86680 Trace it northward
and eastward to try and find its original destination fields or
tanks. Also try to accumulate evidence of prehistoric origins.

State land ends just north of this area. Respect all postings
and private inholdings. Alternate access might be from the
west off the McInery road.

Previous cloud projects still needing your active participation
can be found hereherehere, herehereherehere, and here.

May 8, 2015 deeplink respond

Moved my Thermoluminescence and Archaeomagnetism
classic reprints to our new combined Electronics World 

These were both full level 2 enhancement restorations. We
offer this as a service, but its exceptional quality makes it
a tad pricey. 

One of the reasons I dropped out of an anthro program was when
my Thesis adviser gave me a D on the Archaeomagnetism paper
and pronounced it "unpublishable". Of course, this happened Six 
weeks AFTER it appeared in Electronics World. 

That same advisor was also responsible for converting the compulsory 
faculty teas to intravenous only.

April 29, 2015 deeplink respond

It is usually quite easy to tell the difference between a prehistoric
hanging canal
 and a modern or historic build or rebuild. 

Prehistoric canals are literally "hand made" and are extremely
and excruciatingly energy efficient. Deep or wide portions are 
quite rare and used only when absolutely necessary. 

Hunging portions are quite common to make their slope independent 
of local terrain.  

Modern canals are literally "machine made" and are extremely
energy inefficient. Deep or wide portions are typical for higher 
flow rates. Energy efficiency during construction is nearly totally 
unneeded when you have a mule and a scraper or a Gradeall
helping you. Plus, the more modern canals are likely to include 
concrete, steel, or rebar. 

Hung portions are quite rare as it is much easier to "bull through" 
any obstacle with more extensive cuts and fills. .

Should a shallow or narrow portion show up on a modern or
historic canal, the most likely reason it got there was that it
was a "steal the plans" remnant of an underlying prehistoric 

At least two examples of prehistoric style constuction are present in 
the Cluff NW canal pair. Per this mapthis photo, and this photo.

April 16, 2015 deeplink respond

I firmly believe that most, if not all of the historic use bajada
canals were "steal the plans" or "borrow the blueprints"
adapted from underlying prehistoric originals.

While proof would seem exceptionally difficult, some underlying
principles are that apparently every drop of Mount Graham 
water was fully and professionally exploited by stunning 
prehistoric engineering, leaving little room for new historic
developments. It also would seem infinitely easier to "dig
out an old ditch" than properly engineer an entire new
properly working canal system from scratch.

The pair of Cluff NW historic canals offer additional suggestions
to strong suggestions of prehistoric origins. But such origins are by 
no means proven.

For openers, they are located in the most riparian region of the
entire bajada system. It would seem exceptionally unlikely that
such as area would be prehistorically ignored. The area also has
sparse but extensive tradeware potsherds, clearly establishing
ongoing prehistoric occupation.

A second factor is that the canals clearly have a "binary" mix of 
"high construct energy" and "highly efficient energy" partial segments.
The most credible reason for the shallow, small, and minimal
effort segments is that they are in fact largely unaltered prehistoric. 
Their existence would otherwise make little sense with an availability 
of major earthmoving equipment or beasts of burden.

A third factor is both curious and highly speculative. This canal
system includes a dozen or so masonry"Y-weirs" that are otherwise
apparently unknown elsewhere in the Gila Valley. Their purpose seems
to be simply a one foot high flow limiting dam. There is no
obvious routing or switching or diversion involved.

Why would only this canal system require major constructs of
flow limiters? One credible explanation would be that they started
with a prehistoric low flow original and dug it out for more
capacity. And, in the process, experienced serious washouts 
and erosion.

Next door to this canal complex is the Minor Webster Ditch.
It would seem challenging to find further suggestive evidence
that this canal also is in fact prehistoric. The Smith Tank
Canal in the same area is yet another candidate seeking proof
of prehistoric origins.

Further east, the Tranquility Canal could also use much better
proof of prehistoric origin. As, obviously, could the Robinson Ditch.

Your participation welcome.

April 12, 2015 deeplink respond

A new section to the Cluff NW canal pair has been relocated
here. It seems to also be of prehistoric hanging canal size, 
slope, and standards.

And suggests to strongly suggesting "steal the plans". But
is by no means certain proof. Here is one photo. This reach
is quite subtle but seems quite real.

Elsewhere in the complex are many "Y weir" structures such as
this one. No other occurrance of Y weirs is known. They seem to
be a flow regulator with a one foot drop. One possible use would
be if a prehistoric canal was expanded and resulted in to aggressive
a flow rate.

April 9, 2015 deeplink respond

Here's yet another needed prehistoric hanging canal "cloud"

Find the source and destination of the Cluff NW canal
complex pair starting at N 32.83042 W 109.84475 and
at  N 32.82936 W 109.84478 Seek out proof of prehistoric

Additional cloud projects for which your help is very much needed 
can be found here

March 19, 2015 deeplink respond

Several independent convincing factors for the age of our
prehistoric canals are their energy efficiency and purposeful
intent; the presence of uniform lichens, caliche, and patina; 
being run over without accommodation by roads, dams, fences,
and even cemeteries; or the lack of any apparent use of 
earthmoving equipment, concrete, iron tools, or animal 

But one of the more convincing factors would be the presence
of mature slow growing trees or cacti mid channel. Not only
might these growths be many dozens of years old, but their effective
germination times could well date in the centuries after the last
canal servicing or reuse.

Presence of mid channel vegetation can be most useful for
separating CCC projects from genuinely prehistoric ones.

This image is of a newly found Mesquite Tree midchannel
to the Sand Canal and seems to be the largest and oldest
found to date. Similar approximate locations include...

N 32.83148 W 109.92477 Mesquite
N 32.84284 W 109.81439 Mesquite 
N 32.81738 W 109.82956 
N 32.80739 W 109.81457 Cacti
N 32.80969 W 109.81290 Cacti
N 32.79250 W 109.87288 Cacti

March 18, 2015 deeplink respond

Arizona milepost markers can be found using this guide.

They also are supposedly available here, but note that
they only are activated when clicked and properly

March 14, 2015 deeplink respond

Here's a summary of some of the prehistoric hanging canal
"cloud"projects I sure could use bunches of help with...

Prove or disprove Frye Creek diversion from 
N 32.74420 W 109.83941 to N 32.74562 W 109.84041

Minimize Mud Springs Canal "gap" between 
N 32.79157 W 109.85360 and N 32.80306 W 109.83946

Explore Robinson Canal origin from N 32.75995 W 109.81148
to N 32.77086 W 109.79723

Verify eastern Deadman route is in fact a prehistoric canal
both directions from N 32.75608 W 109.77810 Find its destination

Seek a destination for the Allen Canal starting at N 32.83567 W
. The actual problem begins just past the low saddle 
into Central Wash. 

Find the actual takein point for the Mud Springs Canal between 
N 32.79150 W 109.85363 and N 32.78721 W 109.85466

Seek a destination for the Mud Springs Canal starting at N 32.85155 W 

Try to extend the Gold Course Canal southward from N 32.79854 W
 perhaps ultiately linking it to the HS Canal at N 32.75816 W

Find out where the Shingle Mill canal ( Minor Webster Ditch ) goes
northward from N 32.80175 W 109.87054

See if the area around N 32.76808 W 109.79185  has prehistoric canal potential.

Try to verify if the area from N 32.79280 W 109.72831  to N 32.79461 
W 109.72778
 is in fact a prehistoric canal serving Discovery Park.

Prove or disprove prehistoric water diversion from Nuttall Canyon to a 
Sand Wash tributary at
 N 32.77574 W 109.95586

Explore and photograph the Ledford Canal at N 32.68957 W 109.73870
and the Smith Tank Canal at N 32.68513 W 109.73527

Find a takein point and a route for Henry's Canal linking its known reach  
easterly from N 32.73725 W 109.74212

Seek out evidence of prehistoric canals in the P Ranch area centering 
on N 32.64786 W 109.71942

Find out how the Frye Mesa water got from  N 32.74568 W 109.84039
to N 32.75996 W 109.81153

Regain legal access rights to the Lefthand Canyon and Goat Hill area.

A "big picture" location map can be found here.

March 7, 2015 deeplink respond

I may have found the "Rosetta Stone" that greatly supports
the premise that virtually all historic area bajada sourced canals 
were in fact "steal the plans" or "borrow the blueprints" from 
prehistoric originals.

Based on the second premise that it was clearly easier to 
"dig out an old ditch" than to properly engineer and 
construct an entire working canal system from scratch.

And on the third premise that virtually every drop of
northeastern Mount Grahm bajada water seems to have been
prehistorically successfully exploited.

Candidate canal systems that could use additional evidence
for prehistoric origins would include the Minor Webster Ditch,
the Smith Ponds Canal, and the Tranquility Canal.

Here is an aerial photo of a newly rediscovered Cluff NW
pair (!) of remarkably parallel canals consistently within a 
few dozen feet of each other. The eastern one is large with 
a high single spoil pile wall, clearly energy inefficient, and 
obviously needing modern tools for initial consturction.

The western canal elivery portion is mostly of a deep vee
architecture normally typical of historic use. But it includes
a short section of a few dozen feet at N 32.82641 W 109.84673
that seems "remarkably similiar" to many other  prehistoric 
canals in the area. 

This segment is clearly low energy, shallow, and double bordered. 
It seems exceptionally unlikely to have been intentionally built 
from scratch  historically. A credible reason for its continued 
existence might be that the area is somewhat more rocky than 
some of the deep vee "all dirt" areas. 

Origins of both canals appear to involve Ash Creek takeins,
but this has not yet been verified. .

Both canals share similar historic constructions, including numerous
and distinctively unique "Y Weir" structures and a possible stream
siphon. There is also a very crude and apparently more modern
diversion cut linking west to east just south of the wash.

As usual, this find creates many more new questions than
it resolves. Your help and support welcome to further this
utterly unique local stunning world class research.

March 5, 2015 deeplink respond

So, how long did it take to build our prehistoric hanging canals?

The abstract of one new study from China can be found
here. While not directly relevent, it does point out that 
the time to make the tools needed apparently could be 
quite significant.

I'd also expect limited caloric intake to also be a factor.

My own WAG estimate goes something like this: I 
ask the askee "Given some practice and some good
stone tools, could you build one foot of typical canal
in an hour?"

To which they usually would admit this might be a fair
ball park estimate. Which translates perhaps to fifteen
feet per day or a mile per year. There are presently
something like sixty five miles of known canals.

Adding some slop for rework and mistakes and extra for
any deeper or harder cuts, along with the time to make
the tools and a caloric factor gives us something like 80 
to 130 man years for the project.

Which is a fairly big number, but nothing remotely
approaching an Egyptian Pyraminds work load.

Your mileage may vary.

February 24, 2015 deeplink respond

The new CSI Gila Bend tv series seems to have fully
lived down to its expectations.

February 21, 2015 deeplink respond

I have long wanted to see the ability to quickly and conveniently
merge topo maps with other images
. Preferably with an
instantly programmable transparency. We saw a very crude
example way back when with our aerial coverage of PacMan,

I would think such a feature would be easy to include in the
.KML language or as an added value service to Acme Mapper.

Meanwhile, a not-too-bad approach can sometimes be done by
using Adobe Acrobat XI. Per this example

The trick is to start with a background .pdf file and then use
their understated watermark feature to overlay a second .pdf
file to somewhere near 50 percent transparenecy.

Set the scale to properly span any known alignment marks.
Then adjust the vertical and horizontal watermark positions
to properly align. You'll get the best results and the most
accuracy with the largest possible viewing area.

February 18, 2015 deeplink respond

I remain very much convinced that 95 percent of all local
bajada historic canal projects were based on "steal the 
plans" and "dig out an old ditch". The remaining 5
percent, of course, were based on "borrow the blueprints".

But the pair of Cluff Ponds Northwest canals presents a
dilemma. Their construction and artchitecture is wildly
different from our prehistoric canals. The single wall
high mud barrier clearly was horribly energy inefficient
and obviously needed horse or power scrapers. While
concrete distinctive "Y" weirs form an essential part
of the system. And a rather advanced stream crossing
involved a siphon or similar.

The only "evidence" for a prehistoric predecessor are
a few sparse potsherds. Plus being in the most obvious
and easily constructed riparian location in the entire
Gila Valley. No such location was ignored prehistorically
locally, and such a canal would be conspicuous by its

Yet, evidence for a prehistoric origin presently remains
unacceptably weak.

February 15, 2015 deeplink respond

Yesterday's explorations expanded on the Cluff Ponds Northwest
. These seem to be abandoned historic and are rather distinct
from most prehistoric canals. They are clearly riverine architecture, 
even though they appear to be Ash Creek sourced.

Hallmarks are one high mud bank that clearly would need horse
or tractor scraper work. Plus six or more distinctive concrete
"Y" shaped weirs and some sort of damaged wash crossing,
possibly a siphon. There seem to be two parallel routes.

The "Y" weirs are easily viewed in Acme Mapper.

While the Minor Webster Ditch and its possible Shingle Mill 
prhistoric canal is in the area, the two seem unrelated.

The only hints of possible prehistoric precedents are a few
sparse potsherds and being conspicuous by absence in an 
obvious and easily developed major riparian area.

February 7, 2015 deeplink respond

Managed to return to the Sand Wash hanging canal
#33 several times. As is typical, the return visits created
more questions than they answered.

This is by far the easiest of the hanging canals to access,
both on foot and with 2WD.

It seems to originate in a presently dry wash at N 32.83319 
W 109.92513. Strangely, there is an unexplained terracotta 
pipe at the takein point and a second diversion pipe a 
hundred yards north.
 Who did these obviously modern constructs
and why remains a mystery. Both pipes are on state land
and clearly are an afterthought to the original work .

A credible but unproved possibility is that the present perennial
stream in Nuttall Canyon was diverted into a branch of sand 
wash at N 32.77468 W 109.95556. A present foreset service
water project here would seem to verify the feasibility of 
such a prehistoric diversion. And is remarkably similar to a 
potential upper Frye Creek diversion.

There is at least one other hanging canal example where water
was divrted into a natural streambed and later diverted again
into a canal construct. This would be Spring Canyon feeding
Allen Canal. Spring Canyon may have also been supplied
by a constructed diverision above Frye Creek falls.

Just beyond the second diversion pipe and still on state land,
classic hanging portion begins with the usual "water flows
illusion. This is followed by a fairly long and fairly deep cut
in turn straddled by a huge mesquite tree midchannel. A
fence bridging state and BLM land ownership follows
somewhat to the north.

Once on BLM land and still trending northward, the canal seems
to be exceptionally small. So small that it would appear unlikely
to be able to deliver significant water. The lack of knon survey
instruments suggests that pilot small static levels may have been
used. Such static levels could conceivably be of a size comparable
to this portion of the sand canal.
 Whether this was a pilot constuct
of a work in progress remains highly speculative.

Further north, the canal is partially damaged by a four wheel track.
but remains followable. Yet further north, the canal enters highly
developed private land and no longer appears extant. Possibly 
intrviewing the landoner may prove of value.

Much more on the hanging canals here.

February 3, 2015 deeplink respond

A fairly good sign that a hanging canal or a check dam is prehistoric
is having a large barrel cactus growing mid channel. Or at least
a large mesquite tree or a lesser shrub such as a creosote bush.

We presently have dozens of midstream barrel examples that 
strongly and consistently seem to verify prehistoric age.

All of which raises an interesting math problem that I do not
know how to deal with. The barrel cacti itself could be fifty to
a hundred years old and was unlikely to grow in the presence of
excess water. And the canal owner was unlikely to tolerate its
presence during actual canal use

But the germination time of a cactus is likely to be much, much longer.
Possibly many hundreds of years. How would you statistically measure
this? A steady state could be tentatively assumed, with the number
of new cacti exactly matching the number being harvested or dying.

Otherwise, there would be no cacti or they would be wall to wall
on ten inch centers.

Thus, it would seem to be reasonable to assume that the average 
germination time would be at least a century after the canal fell 
into disuse.

Any suggestions on a mathematical model?

( This is rather similar to the "Is hell exothermic or endothermic? "
problem. If exothermic, eventually all hell breaks loose. If endothermic 
then hell freezes over. )

January 22, 2015 deeplink respond

Finding prehistoric check dams in our area is usually about as 
complicated as finding a pig in a dishpan.

Many of these will have a small apron that seems to make them unique 
from CCC constructs
. The CCC dams also tend to be a lot larger, will
be stacked more than one rock high and tend to be transit aligned.

But this latest checkdam find includes a large barrel cacti midstream.
Which almost certainly means it predates anything recent or historic.

January 18, 2015 deeplink respond

A new Arizona State Museum paper on our hanging canals can
be found here. It is based on a November 2014 tour and on our
Wikipedia article.

This is the first time an independent mainstream archaeological
review has acknowledged the significance and importance of
the world class Safford hanging bajada canals.

January 14, 2015 deeplink respond

Speaking of McEniry, most of the locals around here use
their own "not even wrong" versions of spelling his name.

Even the street signs are mesmerizingly awful!

You can use his signature on the stock swindle prospectus
here. It is Mceniry. "Mc"not "Mac". "E" then "i".

The tunnel today consists of about 400 feet of useless passage
and a wet spot or two. Be sure to leave any and all gates 
exactly the way you found them.

January 13, 2015 deeplink respond

I was recently doing some hanging canal research in Marijilda
Canyon and was astounded to see a hiker backpacking in an
extremely cumbersome Long Tom gold extraction device.

Since this clearly was a "boy, a whole flock of em flew over that
time" situation, I though it best not to comment that Mount
Graham consisted almost entirely of Granite and Gniess
precambrian intrusives that were virtually unmineralized.

While there is spectacular mineralization to the northeast in
Morenci and southwest in Aravapia, there are very few mine 
remnants in the Mount Graham area. And these are all small 
and peripheral at best.

Some examples include the obvious McEniry Tunnel and the 
Spenazuma Mine, both of which were outright scams. 

Other wishful thinking sites included a mineshaft just west
of the P Ranch, some exploration southeast of Cypress Springs
and an apparently long gone tunnel in, of all places Tunnel Canyon. 
But these are about all I know of.

Much more legitimate stuff to explore here. With the
lesser known obscure locations here.

January 11, 2015 deeplink respond

The Arizona Regional Association will be having its annual
cave technology conference on January 24th, 2015 from 
9:30 to 5:30 on the Grand Canyon University campus in
rooms 6-204/206.

Attendance is free and open to anyone with an interest in 
Arizona caving.

There is free garage parking on Saturdays. Grand Canyon 
University is in Phoenix along Camelback Road between 
31st and 35th avenues.

I hate to miss any ARA session, but I have a conflict in that
I'll be talking on Gila Day Hikes in Discovery Park that

January 10, 2015 deeplink respond

It sure gets frustrating when evidence is "not quite good enough".

One or more verified destinations are needed for the Deadman 
Canyon hanging canals. And pre-dam fields in the Discovery 
 area would seem to be a reasonable and topographically
favorable destination. And one that would be conspicuous
by its absence.

There are also numerous cultural artifacts present, including
the Beer Bottle habitation site and scant but widely dispersed

This Acme Mapper suggests a possible canal. On a recent
visit, its evidence seems present but not quite solid. It is
very ephemeral, vague, and seems damaged. But it does
have slope, length, and location.

Additional field interpretation by others is clearly needed.

This would "not quite" be prehistoric canal #34. But clearly
remains a "canal candidate"

January 8, 2015 deeplink respond

           (( This is not quite complete yet and still being revised... ))

Thought I would update our Prehistoric Hanging Canals by
watershed previous entry. And add live Acme Mapper links....

add sand wash
discovery park
marijilda west
goat tank
cluff ponds west

If a premise on our Prehistoric Hanging Canals that "they"   
fully exploited literally every drop of available Northeastern
Mt. Graham water and related springs and artesian sources
is valid, and if the system can be assumed to have been 
complete or nearly completed, and that most historical canals
in the area were "steal the plans" or "borrow the blueprints"
to "dig out an old ditch" it might be of interest to regoup the 
canal arrangements by watersheds.

Starting from the southeast...

P RANCH CANYON - This would appear to be the far limit
of possible canal development with an obvious takein point
at N 32.59434 W 109.73912 and a possible secondary one in 
Veech Canyon. Despite many research trips and persistent 
local rumors, no significant results have yet been observed. 
There is a possible small canal reach of indeterminate age at 
N 32.61347 W 109.72820 and an apparent water control 
structure at
 N 32.65462 W 109.71854

LEFTHAND CANYON EAST - There are two Lefthand
Canyons, with this one being the easternmost near the
Metate Peak area around N 32.67358 W 109.73808.
This region forms an unstudied "gap" in canal occurrences 
and may have in fact been devoid of perennial water sources.

JACOBSON CANYON ( Goat Tank ) - There are apparently
two canal systems derived from the John's Dam area of lower
Jacobson Canyon. This area suggests some of the most intensive
prehistoric canal development along with apparently continuing
modern reuse. The area is hard to visit and has seen fairly
little canal research to date, but has been otherwise studied by
Lair. The southern Goat Tank route begins at N 32.68026 
W 109.75182
, passes Goat Tank itself found at N 32.68268
W 109.75723
 and routes along the southern mesa edge to a 
dropoff and apparent historic or modern pipeline at N 32.68503
W 109.72947

JACOBSON CANYON ( Ledford Tank) - Forms the northern and
apparently still used Ledford Tank Complex. Numerous branches,
modern tanks, and steep mesa drops include 
routing from   
N 32.68496 W 109.76158 to N 32.68706 W 109.74308 to
N 32.69596 W 109.72287
Largely still understudied due to somewhat 
difficult access. A non-canal review can be found here. Remnant canyon 
edge vegetation is highly visible from US 191.

MARIJILDA CANYON ( West ) - There are several major
branches and extensions to the Marijilda Canyon watershed
system. The westernmost and highest served some local fields 
at N 32.70925 W 109.77689
 and were reported by Neely.

MARIJILDA CANYON ( Main )- A very rich and well studied area
sourcing from N 32.70626 W 109.77726. Several smaller branch 
canals diverge from this point. The main Marijilda Ditch at 
N 32.71724  W 109.76735 was historically reworked and still 
sees use to this day, feeding Lebanon Reservoir #1 at N 32.73493 
W 109.76074
 and ultimately sourcing Roper N 32.75624 
W 109.70471

HIGH MARIJILDA and AQUADUCT - Branches off the modern
Marijlda canal near asdfasdf and crosses a hundred meter long and
meter high solid aquaduct at asdfasdf

A southern divergence formed the possibly older
and original Henry's canal, studied from N 32.73760 W 109.74198
to N 32.74566 W 109.72640.

Meanwhile, the High Marijilda original 
canal first crosses an aqueduct at N 32.72371 W 109.76240 and 
then forms one of the most spectacularly hanging portions at
N 32.73317 W 109.75794 and eventually feeding Lebanon Reservoir #2 
at and sourcing the ( likely ) updated modern Roper Canal terminating 
at N 32.75569 W 109.70786. A second presumed branch from Lebanon
Reservoir #2 is believed to be buried under modern agricultural development,
eventually "tunneling" under the Lebanon Cemetery at N 32.76159 W 
109.73320 and forming the Twin East Canal feeding the Twin Boobs 
ponding area at
. N 32.76603 W 109.73595Separetely, the Rincon Canyon
is believed to route down its namesake at N 32.75326 W 109.75370 servicing 
several domestic sites and possibly becoming the Twin West Canyon also 
delivering to the Twin Boobs ponding area at N 32.76603 W 109.73595



TRANQUILITY CANAL - Believed to be unique as it is potentially artesian
sourced, shorter, and routes over private inholdings. Possibly originates
somewhere near N 32.75759 W 109.73297and believed to deliver water to 
the Cooks Reservoir area at N 32.77415 W 109.72812. While portions are 
clearly modern,  an underlying prehistoric original remains somewhat 
likely but unproven. At one point, the Tranquility Canal comes amazingly
close to the Twin East canal, separated only by a significant cliff of only
30 feet or so of height. The two remain presumed totally unrelated. 

twin east

twin west


DEADMAN CANYON ( North )- An original and significantly hanging portion is
believed to have been replaced by a modern pipeline from N 32.73900 
W 109.81155 to N 32.74463 W 109.80704. This canal still flows to this
day, servicing several top mesa tanks. Area has evidence of "knife Edging"
where canals are carefully routed across the highest possible and extremely
narrow mesa tops. An apparent three way switch at N 32.76058 W 109.78133 
seemed to allow selective routing to Porter Springs Tank at N 32.77033 
W 109.77811, Upper Deadman Tank at N 32.75845 W 109.77030, and 
Lower Deadman Tank at N 32.77141 W 109.75142 Meanwhile, a potential 
and enigmatic southern knife edge branch remains unexplored from 
N 32.75403 W 109.78250 to N 32.75652 W 109.77705 and may have been a 
still unproven primary or secondary source for the Twin West Canal at
N 32.76478 W 109.74227. Numerous braided channels or trails remain a
highly enigmatic mystery at N 32.75461 W 109.78203.


DEADMAN CANYON ( South )- An o


SOUTH OF FREEMAN - A large area here seems conspicuous by
the absence of any known canals, yet might in fact been too arid or 
of to complex a topography to support prehistoric interest. Largely
unvisited due to more promising terrain elsewhere. Centers on
N 32.77622 W 109.75398 and is difficult of access.

DISCOVERY SOUTHWEST - The area from N 32.79452 W 109.72842 to 
N 32.78222 W 109.73994 is rich in archaeology yet no canals are known. 
Includes the Clay Knolls ( aka Beer Bottle ruin ) sites and many rock 
alignments, mulch rings, field houses, and such. Many mulch rings were 
trashed by the City of Safford during a water tank construction. Possibly the
densest collection of southern grids appears at N 32.78550 W 109.74270

LONGVIEW AREA - A prehistorically rich area full of habitation sites,
rock constructs, check dams with and without aprons, grids, many linear
features, and mulch rings. Only a very short hint of a canal wall is known
at N 32.78923 W 109.75944 without any yet supporting evidence of links to the 
Porter Springs or Frye Mesa areas. From N 32.77999 W 109.76410 
to N 32.77999 W 109.76410



UPPER FRYE DIVERSION - In a still unproven but apparently provable
premise that would represent a mind blowingly stunning example of stone
age engineering, Frye Creek water 
might have been diverted from
N 32.74354 W 109.83987 over a  short and credibly sloped route to merge 
with the spring water in Spring Canyon at N 32.74542 W 109.84042. From 
there it could be routed down the Spring Creek channel to become the 
source for the Allen Canal at N 32.78240 W 109.83558 or routed down 
Frye Mesa to a ponding area at N 32.75996 W 109.81150 to become 
switched between the Robinson Canal and the HS Canal. Indirect evidence
for the diversion includes (1) Every other drop of NE Mount Graham stream 
water was carefully exploited; (2) Alternate downstream diversions of Frye 
Creek water seems unlikely due to extreme topography; (3) A modern 
USFS water project from the Spring Creek spring down the Frye Falls road 
to N 32.75695 W 109.83481 would seem to be a "steal the plans" verification
of credible prehistoric Frye Mesa routing; (4) Lack of a diversion would
suggest much higher prehistoric Spring Canyon CFS rates and much lower 
Frye Creek ones; And (5) the HS canal is a major and high energy field proven
counterflow  construct that clearly is very carefully placing ( and likely returning )
water to Frye Creek.
 The latter as a possible source for the field verified Golf 
Course Canal. Clearly, major effort needs spent in proving or disproving both this
diversion premise and the HS canal destination(s). 

LOWER FRYE MESA CONSTRUCTS - Some of the most impressive and
most energy intensive bajada canal efforts appear to have taken place on Lower
Frye Mesa. While remarkably well preserved and reasonably well field 
verified, these raise highly enigmatic questions about their largely unproven 
water sources and destinations. There are numerous braided channels between
N 32.75552 W 109.83401 and N 32.76001 W 109.81149 that appear to be of 
prehistoric origin, despite being tainted by some obvious CCC cross-channel 
rework. These channels terminate at an  apparent ponding area at N 32.76009 W
, where the water can be selectively diverted between the believed 
along mesa start of the Robinson 
Canal or carefully counterflow steeply returned 
to Frye Creek
 via the major HS Canal construct to N 32.75766 W 109.81431.
Water is believed to originate at the spring in Spring Canyon at N 32.74542 W
., possibly helped considerably by a diversion of Frye Creek water 
from N 32.74354 W 109.83987. A route down the Frye Mesa Falls road is 
supported by a  modern and believed "steal the plans" USFS water project to 
N 32.75695 W 109.83481.

HS CANAL - - This appears to be the most intensively developed structure
in the entire bajada complex at N 32.75995 W 109.81150 to N 32.75766 
W 109.81431
, beating out the aquaduct at N 32.72396 W 109.76246 and the 
Culeebra Cut on the Allen Canal at N 32.83565 W 109.79816 for the most 
amount of dirt and rock moved. 
It is quite clear the HS canal is very carefully
counterflow returning water to the Frye Creek channel, rather than simply
dumping it. The apparently major destination remains unknown, bu tthis forms
a credible source to the Golf Course Canal, presently verified only from a distant
N 32.79845 W 109.78255 to N 32.79879 W 109.77594. Destinations in the Blue
Ponds or Longview areas would also appear possibly but rather less likely.

this gets replaced, not quite done with it yet...

FRYE MESA COMPLEX - Perhaps the most extraordinary assemblage of
all the prehistoric canals and has the most elaborate constructs. Water is
believed but not yet proven to be diverted above the falls at N 32.74376 
W 109.83971, across a saddle and over into Spring Canyon where it merges 
into a ponding area below a spring at 
N 32.74572 W 109.84043. If not 
diverted, the water routes down Spring Canyon to an Allen Canal takein 
point at N 32.78238 W 109.83555 Allen canal continues for several miles,
eventually routing under Allen Reservoir at N 32.83191 W 109.79555 
continuing through an enormously huge Culebra Cut at N 32.83567 W 109.79799
and a carefully engineered saddle gap crossing at N 32.83313 W 109.80475, 
finally believed to end up in unproven fields beneath the Central Dam at 
N 32.85032 W 109.8000 . Meanwhile, alternate diversion is believed to route 
water under the Frye Mesa
 Falls Road extension at N 32.75101 W 109.83855, 
through various braided channels at N 32.76001 W 109.81462 to a ponding area 
at N 32.76000 W 109.81149 . The higher elevation portion of this routing is 
partially supported by a "steal the plans" forest service pipeline. The
water apparently is split two ways at the ponding area, first going to a spectacularly
impressive counterflowing HS Canal. While the HS canal clerly returns water
to Frye Creek at N 32.75803 W 109.81509, unproven beliefs strongly suggest it 
is the source for the Golf Course Canal, portions of which are currently known to 
route from N 32.79840 W 109.78269 to N 32.79883 W 109.7761. Also suggested
is that the HS Canal might be a possibly prehistoric source for the modern Blue 
Ponds Canal at N 32.78088 W 109.77833 or might be a factor in the extensive 
Longview development near N 32.77800 W 109.76661. Several braided channels 
have also been noted that might be related, although they seem to be older and 
more primitive constructs. These were named the Riggs Complex and found at
N 32.77846 W 109.78945 and hints of a possible nearby portion of Golf Course 
Canal remain largely unstudied and unlinked at N 32.78465 W 109.78724

Meanwhile, back at the N 32.76000 W 109.81149 ponding area, the second
routing is believed to form the Robinson Canal ( Historically renamed the 
Robinson Ditch ) that routes over a spectacular hanging portion at N 32.77173 W 
then "climbing" to the main portion of Robinson Mesa at N 32.78467 
W 109.79339 is believed to reach fields North of  Daley Estates, presumably near 
N 32.81054 W 109.77185.

LOWER FRYE EAST - An as yet unvisited strange construct near N 32.76733 W 109.79304 may or  may not be hanging canal related, although possible Acme 
Mapper visual clues further north  near N 32.77079 W 109.78881 seemed to have turned into a field checked abandoned wagon road, complete with 
horseshoes. The
area  could link to the modern short Blue Ponds diversionary selection canal running
from N 32.78095  W 109.77841 to N 32.78130 W 109.77666 or might serve the 
Longview area  in some yet undiscovered manner. CCC projects are also in the 
area. The Blue Ponds canal is quite short and, while mostly similar to prehistoric constructs, does include a disused combined concrete diversionary headgate.

ALLEN CANAL - A major canal pretty much in the middle of the bajada study
area. Its water source is the spring in spring canyon at asdfasdfadf, possibly but so
far unproven to be significantly aided by a Frye Creek diversion at asdfasdfasdf.
The natural stream channel is used northward to the initial constructed canal takein
point at asdfasdf. Following a classic "water flows uphill" illusion, the misnamed 
Hawk Hollow tank at asdfasdf appears to have reused this prehistoric resource.

Several unfilled gaps remain in the canal exploration here, above the resorvoir where the
canal drops off mesa, andto its ultimate and still enigmatic destination. The canal continues northward along a relatively flat mesa top and after passeing many nearby
CCC constructs crosses a Mud Spings alternae track at asdfasdf. Several barrel cacti midchannel
along this route suggest the canal's minimum age. The catastrophically failed Allen Dam
crosses the canal without accomodation, but may have historically tapped the canal
as a water source. Below and somewha northwest of the dam at adfasdf lies the Culebra
Cut, which is by far the widest and deepest known construct. But dwarfed by the
HS Canal for total dirt and rock moved. The canal  is carefully routed through continue

MUD SPRINGS CANAL - This significant canal is the only known one where its 
entire  length can be viewed from several places, which suggests it might have 
been an original prototype for the longer range delivery canals. The original takein 
is believed to be in upper Ash Creek near N 32.78761 W 109.85476, followed 
by a projected hanging portion that may or may not still exist owing to potential flood damage. A sheer conglomerate cliff here does not bode well. A new road greatly 
eases access to this portion of the canal. A key feature here is an exceptionally well
located critical saddle crossover found at N 32.79162 W 109.85378 followed by an mostly easily traceable but not yet completely surveyed route down past Mud 
Springs to N 32.80308 W 109.83942. The canal continues mostly traceable northward 
to a seldom visited hanging portion near N 32.81313 W 109.83288 and one of the
largest mid channel Mesquite trees at N 32.81632 W 109.83125. The canal continues to a well researched area near some CCC cosnstructs and is overrun without any
accommodation by a SCS dam at N 32.82266 W 109.825401. There is appears to be 
a minor branch of the canal northward here of unknown purpose. The canal continues 
northeasterly past a curious water level pithouse-like structure presently called the
Troll House. No obvious evidence of charcoal is present at this site at N 32.82691 W 109.82120.
 This is the only known structure in direct associatied wiith most of the 
canal systems. Near N 32.82755 W 109.81949, the significant Jernigan Canal branch
splits off to the north
Meanwhile, the main Mud Springs Canal continues easterly 
just past an apparently historic tank at N 32.82764 W 109.81896 and then can be 
traced to 
N 32.83060 W 109.81600, temporarily lost, and then retraced to a modest
hanging portion and caliche colored reach at N 32.84283 W 109.81069. Near this area,
the Mud Springs Canal and the Jernigan Canal come back amazingly close
together, despite nearly three kilometers of split construction. The Mud Springs 
canal can be easily followed to N 32.84796 W 109.81104 where it suddenly
vanishes without a trace. Its destination fields remain unknown at present.

   Watershed: Ash Creek
   Length: asdfasdf projected; asdfasdf known; visited 75% 
   Elevations: asdfasdf start; asdfasf end; asdf slope 
   Features: hanging portions; saddle crossing; entire length viewable; 
                   Jernigan branch; associated structure; cacti
   Significance: 9
   Photos: Mud1 Mud2Mud3Mud4

JERNIGAN CANAL - This is a significant western branch of the Mud Springs
Canal sourcing at N 32.82757 W 109.81948 and terminating in a rare French 
Drain style construct dropping into well defined extant fields at N 32.84159 W
 and near the Jerinigan habitation site. The diversion point is at
N 32.82757 W 109.81948 where a few unexpected embedded small rocks 
suggest some sort of a prehistoric headgate. Much of the route is easily followed
and has a well defined hanging portion at N 32.84276 W 109.81539, a nearby
counterflow streat crossing in and a larger Mesquite tree mid channel found at
N 32.84304 W 109.81462 . But two significant gaps remain at N 32.83385 W 109.81672
and N 32.84331 W 109.81329 despite numerous attempts at field verification. Near N32.84203 W 109.81223, the Jernigan and the Mud Springs canals remain only a few
hundred meters apart and of quite little elevation difference, despite a kilometer or 
more of construction between them. The canal features three U-Turn loops.

Watershed: Ash Creek
Length: asdfasdf projected; asdfasdf known; visited 75% 
 asdfasdf start; asdfasf end; asdf slope 
hanging portions; saddle crossing; entire length viewable; 
 Jernigan branch; associated structure; cacti

LOWER MUD AREA  - Acme Mapper suggested a possible canal sourcing
from the Mud Springs Canal at N 32.80816 W 109.84445 and delivering water 
to fields under the present Smith Ponds at N 32.82006 W 109.84253. While
Google Earth suggested elevation slopes to be canal credible. There are
also significant prehistoric dry ag artifacts somewhat to the east. Preliminary
Field verfication revealed this to be an abandonded vehicular two track and 
deemed of lower further priority.

SMITH PONDS CANAL  - A modern but disused canal can be traced routing
from Ash Creek to N 32.81874 W 109.84679 to N 32.82009 W 109.84462
once servicing a pair of ponds with the easternmost one also being spring sour\ced. 
Modern concrete headgates remain extant on Ash Creek. No immediate proof of
prehistoric origins have yet been found, but indirect evidence is compelling. Not the
least of  which  being such a prehistoric origin would be highly conspicuous by its
absence. There are numerous potsherds and a larger habitation site in the immediate
area, and the canal technology appears well within prehistoric capabilities. 
This is 
in midst of the largest regional riparian area and the modernponds could well
have  served as destination fields,

CLUFF CENTRAL CANAL - A historic takein point off Ash Creek for the 
Smith Ponds Canal includes an unchecked southwesterly headgate. This
could conceivably lead to some nearby prehistoric fields. Its scope would
seem to be somewhat "boxed in" by the Shingle Mill Canal and the 
Cluff NW pair of canals. Modern ag development clearly has trashed the
area. The Evans Ponds would appear to be a credible destination.
    Watershed: Ash Creek
    Length: 0.2 miles projected; 0 known; visited 0% 

    Elevations: starts at approximately 3160 feet. 
    Features: still unknown
    Significance: possibly 3+

SHINGLE MILL CANAL - A disused modern canal was known as
the Minor Webster Ditch and routed along N 32.79785 W 109.87270 to 
N 32.81087 W 109.86743, apparently sourcing from Shingle Mill canyon. 
Construction did include a service road and a deeper vee typical of a Gradeall, 
but prehistoric origins would remain remain likely, again with such a canal being 
highly conspicuous by its absence in a prime riparian area. And with the route being
consistent with prehistoric engineering capabilities. There are also numerous
potsherds in the area.  and the modern Cluff Ponds region would seem an ideal fields
destination. Research is confused by numerous CCC area projects. The takein 
area seems to have been destroyed by one or more catastrophic floods, while the
middle portion is extremely easily followed. While the Cluff Northwest Canals are
north and down elevation, they appear to be unrelated. The prime focus of 
further research should be seeking evidence of prehistoric origins.

CLUFF NORTHWEST - Two parallel apparently abandoned historic canals
run from N 32.82416 W 109.84666 to N 32.83049 W 109.84474. The riverine
architecture seems to originate from Ash Creek and includes one high mud
that clearly would need horse or tractor scraper work. Distinctive "Y"
shaped concrete weirs are included plus a possible siphon. The only
prehistoric evidence are sparse potsherds plus being conspicuous by 
absence in an  obvious and very easily developed major riparian area.

"RINGCONE" AREA - Acme Mapper suggests a tentative canal route 
from N 32.81951 W 109.90236 to N 32.84152 W 109.89352, and Google 
 verifies the route as slope credible. But field verification to date
has only shown a disused vehicle or wagon track. A credible water source 
is also not obvious. This is presently considered an unlikely candidate for 
further research.

LEFTHAND & GOAT HILL AREA - This second Lefthand Canyon is in
the Spear Ranch region. Some highly interesting and well studied canals
appear directly related to destination fields near N 32.80647 W 109.91850
Some of these canals differ from others in the study area in that they are 
significantly shorter, multi branch and are clearly end use,  rather than
intended for longer range transport. Apparently atypically owing to reliable 
water close to their intended habitation and fields area. Proven destination 
examples elsewhere in the bajada canal complex seem rare, being currntly 
conspicuous only here and on the Jernigan and Roper Canals. This area is 
among the most intensely developed and is comparable to the Marijilda area. 
A case can be made that these shorter canals might have been among the 
earliest developed, owing to obviousness and a higher priority of success . 
Extensive studies and mappings have been published by Neely.

LEFTHAND WEST CANALThis medium length canal is more representative
of long range delivery canals elsewhere in the bajada complex. First studied 
by Neely, it has recently been revisited and upgraded to modern GPS and
Acme Mapper standards. The canal ranges from 
N 32.82005 W 109.91814
to N 32.82567 W 109.91841 and is mostly intact but has suffered flood and
historic damage. An abandoned historic, rectangular, and compass oriented
3 acre field at N 32.82567 W 109.91841 seems to present strong evidence of 
"steal the plans" adaption of the prehistoric original.

Photo: Left1

SPEAR RANCH CANAL - Unlike many Lefthand Canals which seems to be 
local use field delivery, a longer northward long range delivery branch of 
the Lefthand complex is suggested by Acme Mapper but is not yet fully 
explored. This potentially routes from at least N 32.82013 W 109.91605
to  N 32.83540 W 109.91482 Recent road restrictions make access difficult.

LAMB TANK CANAL - A longer range delivery canal appears to have 
been sourced from western Lefthand Canyon and routed from N 32.80151 
W 109.92078
 to N 32.82868 W 109.92224 and merits further study. The
lefthand area has been extensively reported by Neely. While the Sand 
Wash Canal is further downslope from Lamb Tank. the two systems 
currently appear unrelated. A new Pima Water road would seem to
greatly aide access for future research.

SAND WASH CANAL - This is one of the easiest reached and 
readily explored canals, but still lacks a proven water source.
The explored portion runs from N 32.83085 W 109.92615 to
N 32.83509 W 109.92273 and traverses State, BLM, and
private lands. The initial southern portion includes two enigmatic
terracotta diversion pipes obviously added during modern times.
A significant hanging portion can be found near N 32.83112 
W 109.92515
 along with its usual "water flows uphill" illusion.
This is followed by a fairly deep cut at N 32.83127 W 109.92481,
in turn followed by an extremely large mesquite tree mid channel. 
An EW fence defines the boundary between State and BLM land.
The canal assumes a mesa top aspect to the north. Strangely, the
canal size becomes much smaller than normal, possibly not
enough to deliver significant water. Perhaps this was a work in
progrss where a pilot channel acted as a water level in leiu
of survey instruments. A 4WD track here has damaged but not
obliterated the canal route. The route vanishes entirely where
it enters developed private land at N 32.83530 W 109.92265.

Photos: Sand1 Sand2 Sand3 Sand4 Sand5 Sand6 Sand7
             Sand8 Sand9

NUTTALL DIVERSION - A credible water source for the Sand Wash
Canal has yet to be verified, Most of Sand Wash itself is largely
disconnected from Mt. Graham and is quite dry today. But there is
perennial water in Nuttall Canyon. It seems credible that a diversion
of Nuttall Canyon water at N 32.77562 W 109.95530 into a branch
of Sand Wash would be prehistorically feasible. Such a divrsion
is supported by a modern CNF water tank project at N 32.77786 
W 109.95535
. A rather similar CNF project overlaying a prehistoric 
original appears in the Frye  Mesa area, and the Allen Canal makes 
significant use of the natural Spring Canyon drainage.

BEAR SPRINGS & BIGLER PONDS -The region from N 32.85171 
W 109.94775
 to N 32.85009 W 109.94483 are major artesian sources 
unlikely to have been ignored as prehistoric water development. There 
are also likely destination fields in the area, although the area has been
little studied as canal candidates. A spectacularly large and currently
disused canal at N 32.86676 W 109.93024 appears to have been 
primarily a modern real estate scam.

THE UFO FISH FILETS - The highly unusual and wildly atypical
construct at N 32.81509 W 109.97079 would appear to define the 
westernmost limit of the present canal study area. While believed 
of primarily CCC origin, there may be prehistoric precedents that
are related to water management issues.

LEVADAS - As far as can be determined to date, these Southwestern
bajada hanging canals
 seem to be world wide unique. Driven in part
by unusually high, wet, and bajada interconnected Mount Graham. Some
newer and iron age but otherwise remarkably similar hanging canals 
have been located in the Portugueese island of Madeira. A typical 
example can be found here, a discussion here, and many images here.
While apparently unrelated, both locations seem to be based on the 
dominant principle of hanging canal routes to make their slope largely 
independent of the surrounding terrain

Photo: Levada1


Ongoing maps of these areas can be found here and here. With additional
content here and an image collection here.

Your involvement and participation welcome.

January 6, 2015 deeplink respond

Sand Wash Prehistoric Canal has been verified as #33. Some preliminary
field notes....

Observations on Acme Mapper suggested yet another canal complex in 
the previously unstudied Nuttall Canyon drainage area. A portion of this
canal has been verified as highly likely to be both prehistoric and 
typical of the assemblage. And seems to presently form the westernmost 
confirmed candidate in the hanging canal study area.

The primary study area lies on State and BLM Land just off the Sand Tank 
road and offers exceptionally easy vehicle and foot access. State lands are 
south of the fence and gate; BLM to the north.

Field verification included a Sand Wash level area, followed by a classic but 
low hanging "climbing" portion with the usual "water flows uphill" illusion, 
followed by a fairly deep cut, followed by a long mesa top run. Most 
of which are fully typical of other canal reaches in the study area.

The long mesa top reach, though, appears highly atypical in that it
is quite small, being well less than half normal size. And would
appear unlikely to be able to deliver significant water a long

A premise as to why no canal survey tools exist system wide might
be that pilot extensions of the canals themselves served as water
 Once a route of credible slope was statically verified,
the actual major canal construction could be expanded. The size
of the mesa top canal reach would seem to add credence to being a 
work in progress
, acting as a pilot to the intended full canal.

Further canal routing to the north is restricted by modern private
homesite development. Cottonwood Wash would seem to place a
fairly near limit on how much more northern extent is missing.

Areas to the south have not yet been studied. The sand wash itself
may be a takein point, despite its very name suggesting an inability
to deliver surface water long distances. This wash is normally dry,
but a historically built and large Sand Tank apparently saw some
water development potential. Despite the main Sand Tank watershed
being apparently limited in size and largely disconnected from
mountaintop snowmelt access.

There is a curious other possibility for a water source. An eastern
branch of Sand Wash actually "almost" merges with perennial Nuttall 
Canyon stream at N 32.77695 W 109.9562. Water diversion at this point 
would appear to be within the bounds of prehistoric capability. The USFS
presently has a gravity fed stock tank in this area that clearly verifies
such a possibility. This tank project is remarkably similar to one 
overlaying a prehistoric canal in the Frye Mesa Falls area.

Regardless of the ultimate source of water, this canal seems to rather
strongly suggest both a wetter climate and more robust stream runoff 
than present.

The canal preservation is remarkably good in the initial study area.

A twelve inch Mesquite tree mid channel and highly consistent patina 
and caliche add further to the canal's credibility in the study area.
Somewhat disconcerting is the presence of a single glazed terracota 
drain pipe
 placed in the canal wall to dump any water back into Sand 
Wash. Possibly this state land recent construct was done to prevent 
further silt deposition.

Images to date can be viewed as...

sand1 East from mesa top shows unusually small size.
sand2 West from mesa top from same location.
sand3 Near the state lands fence line border.
sand4 A "water flows uphill" from "hanging" area.
sand5 Typical reach between hanging and deep cut.
sand6 Rather deep cut south of state land fence.

One of the implications of this canal is that the canals in the Lefthand 
Canyon area are no longer an outlier. And instead seem to be a fully
integrated portion of the Bajada hanging canal complex. This canal also
adds credibility to the historic Minor Webster Ditch system also
having prehistoric origins.

More on the hanging canals here.
Ongoing developments in and earlier. 

Field mice and research assistants welcome.

January 3, 2015 deeplink respond

It is a bit early to call this Canal #33 or Prehistoric Sand Wash Canal,
but its Acme Mapper hints sure look intriguing.

While not yet field verified, this sure looks like a water development
starting in Sand Wash with an initial "hanging" portion followed 
by a linear on-mesa run of half a mile or so.

Alternately, this could be an extension of the known Lamb Tank canal.

Such a canal would need more water than is typical of today's wash.
But somebody once historically built the fairly large Sand Tank further 

More interestingly, there is an east branch to Sand Wash that seems to
go all the way up to Nuttall Canyon. Provided some prehistorically 
manageable diversion took place near N 32.77672 W 109.95655.

The main Nuttall stream appears perennial at this point.

Curiously, there is an apparent USFS gravity tank development
here that is remarkably similar to the one skirting Frye Mesa
Falls. There is strong evidence of the latter being "steal the plans"
blueprint borrowing from a prehistoric original.

If real, Canal #33 would have some strong implications involving
rainfall and climate. Being westernmost known to date, it would 
further integrate the Lefthtand Speer canals into the main regional 
canal system

Field mice and research assistants are most definitely welcome.

December 30, 2014 deeplink respond

Uh, there seems to be a brand new and conspicuously posted
gate blocking Coyote Drive, the usual access route to both
the Lefthand Archaeological District and the Goat Hill Ruin.

There does seem to be an alternate workaround route to
the west of Lefthand Canyon. Which may or may not also
eventually end up gated and posted.

Much more Gila Dayhike info here and here. I'll be talking
on some of this at Discovery Park on January 24th.

December 28, 2014 deeplink respond

So, how can you tell something seems to be a prehistoric
, rather than a vehicle two-track, a cowpath, a
game route, an old fence, an historic wagon road, a film 
scratch, a wash, or ATV damage? 

The glib answer is that you know it when you see it.
And, of course, field verify it.

Some other guidelines include...

The slope will be very low and nearly constant,
typically around one percent.

The slope will NEVER be negative! Not even for
a little bit

GPS, Google Earth, and Barometric devices are 
not nearly accurate enough to measure slope.
Required is an automatic level. Or possibly 
a new cellphone ap.

The routing will be rather straight but not
transit straight and almost always will not be in
a consistent cardinal direction.

When appropriate, portions of the route may be
literally "hung" on mesa edges, making slope
largely independent of adjacent terrain.

Construction effort will be seen to be exceptionally
energy efficient, with most effort being directed
across rather than along the route. Caused by
the lack of beasts of burden or iron age tools.

Routings ultimately end up extremely purposeful,
efficiently going from reliable water sources to 
needed field destinations.

Both Acme Mapper and field evidence will typically
be vague and indistinct.
 And broken by both natural
erosion, flood damage, and modern constructs.

Any omissions to totally exploiting Northeastern Mount 
Graham water will be conspicuous by their absence.

The route will often be run over without accomodation
by dams, roads, fences, and even cemeteries.

There will be many other similar routings in the area
with similar goals, architectures, and appearance.

"Steal the plans" historic or recent reuse will usually 
be obvious. Especially if the CCC was involved. 
Reuse tends to only use a portion of the entire route. 
And significantly omits much in the way of expected
concrete, iron, or maint roads.

The center will usually have originally been significantly
lower than the surrounding terrain, with "spoil piles" 
often defining the edges.

Rock patina, caliche, and lichens will be uniform and 
properly oriented. 

Cacti, large Mesquite trees, and slow growing and non 
water loving shrubs may be present mid channel.

During floral blooms, "dead flowers" may clearly mark 
the routes, owing to fine grained fill moisture retention. 

A strong illusion of "water flowing uphill" is often present.

Vehicle two tracks tend to be more obvious, more uniform 
and of much wider width. They also tend to orient with 
historic or more modern needs.

Routing will usually be along drainges, rather than across.
CCC projects tend to be across rather than along

Projects will appear to be "big picture" consistent with the
total energy efficient exploitation of a major regional
water resource.

"Counterflow" runs where the route runs downward into 
rising terrain will be very rare and specifically goal 
oriented. Such as positioning for a wash crossing or 
returning water to a natural drainage.

When fully traced, the route will be both exceptionally 
consistent and exceptionally long. Six miles is not at
all unusual in the present studies.

Unless recently reworked, the channel will tend to be 
full of water born or aeolean fine grained fill.



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